I thank Regina Eder-Jonas, Alice Eagly, Margaret Stroebe, and Wolfgang Stroebe for their comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.
Expectancy-value models of health behaviour: An analysis by conjoint measurement†
Article first published online: 22 FEB 2006
Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
European Journal of Social Psychology
Volume 23, Issue 2, pages 167–183, March/April 1993
How to Cite
Jonas, K. (1993), Expectancy-value models of health behaviour: An analysis by conjoint measurement. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 23: 167–183. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420230205
- Issue published online: 22 FEB 2006
- Article first published online: 22 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 MAY 1992
- Manuscript Received: 6 AUG 1991
Various studies in the health area consistently rejected the multiplicative combination between severity and probability of threat which is predicted by expectancy-value (EV) theories. It is hypothesized here, that this negative evidence may be due to an overly demanding assumption underlying the multiplicative combination, namely, the assumption that people are able to performs trade-offs between expectancies and valences. This hypothesis is tested in two studies in which subjects judged hypothetical health threats. Results from a nonparametric analysis (conjoint measurement) of individual data (Study 1) and an experimental study of trade-off judgments (Study 2) are mostly consistent with the prediction. Unexpectedly, however, an ANOVA of the aggregate data of Study 1 yielded a small, but significant effect consistent with the multiplicative assumption. Whereas this latter result can be interpreted as evidencing an attempt to perform trade-offs, the overall results show as predicted that trade-off judgments are associated with a systematic error component due to the inherent difficulty of this type of judgment.