Women's self-identification with social power was assessed in three studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). In Experiment 1, women held weaker implicit and explicit associations between self and power than did men. Experiment 2 demonstrated that women assigned to a high power group have stronger implicit self-power associations than do women in a low power group. Experiment 3 showed that women assigned to a high power role have stronger implicit self-masculine associations than do women assigned to a low power role, but social power did not affect explicit associations with masculinity. These studies suggest that gender differences in implicit self-concept may be malleable depending on context and social roles. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.