Retracted:It's all in the timing: measuring emotional reactions to stereotype threat before and after taking a test



This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Retraction statement: It's all in the timing: Measuring emotional reactions to stereotype threat before and after taking a test Volume 42, Issue 7, 933, Article first published online: 5 October 2012


Stereotype threat is often described as resulting from increased anxiety over confirming a negative stereotype about one's group (Steele, 1997). However, variations in the type of emotional reactions targets experience as a function of stereotype threat has never been examined systematically before and after taking a test, thus it is unclear whether targets experience different emotions at different points in the testing session. The present study investigated this issue of emotional specificity. Results demonstrate that targets of a negative stereotype, but not non-targets, experienced heightened anxiety prior to taking a test under stereotype threat conditions and heightened frustration once the test was concluded. No effects were found in the non-stereotype threat conditions. These findings, therefore, highlight the specific affective states that targets and non-targets experience in threat and non-threat conditions, as well as how these affective states can be assessed using self-report measures. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.