Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: ‘Hooliganism’, public order policing and social change
Article first published online: 1 JUN 2006
Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
European Journal of Social Psychology
Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 75–100, January/February 2007
How to Cite
Stott, C., Adang, O., Livingstone, A. and Schreiber, M. (2007), Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: ‘Hooliganism’, public order policing and social change. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 37: 75–100. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.338
- Issue published online: 21 DEC 2006
- Article first published online: 1 JUN 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 DEC 2005
- Manuscript Received: 12 APR 2005
- Economic and Social Research Council. Grant Number: RES-000-23-0617
This paper presents an analysis of collective behaviour among England football fans attending the European football championships in Portugal (Euro2004). Given this category's violent reputation, a key goal was to explore the processes underlying their apparent shift away from conflict in match cities. Drawing from the elaborated social identity model of crowd behaviour (ESIM) data were obtained using semi-structured observations and interviews before, during and after the tournament. Qualitative analysis centres first on three key incidents in match cities where the potential for violence was undermined either by ‘self-policing’ among England fans, or by appropriately targeted police intervention. These are contrasted with two ‘riots’ involving England fans that occurred in Algarve during the tournament. A phenomenological analysis of England fans' accounts suggests that the contexts created by different forms of policing helped bring to the fore different understandings of what constituted proper and possible behaviour among England fans, and that these changes in identity content underpinned shifts toward and away from collective conflict. The implications of this analysis for the ESIM, understanding public order policing, social change and social conflict are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.