Two experiments examined the impact of anonymity and accountability on the expression of group-mediated attitude-behaviour consistency. In Study 1, low and high identifiers (N = 106) were exposed to an attitude-congruent norm and provided information about their intentions under anonymous and in-group accountable conditions. In Study 2, salience of identity was manipulated, and participants (N = 185) were exposed to either an attitude-congruent or an attitude-incongruent norm, and provided information on their intentions and behaviour under anonymous and in-group accountable conditions. In both studies, accountability elicited group-normative attitudes and behaviour among individuals for whom the group was not a salient basis for self-definition. When the group was a salient basis for self-definition, the expression of attitude-consistent intentions and behaviour was greater in anonymous conditions. It is suggested that strategic effects, such as those that occur in the presence of an in-group audience, influence displays of group-normative attitude–behaviour consistency. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.