The effect of arm crossing on persistence and performance
Article first published online: 25 MAY 2007
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
European Journal of Social Psychology
Volume 38, Issue 3, pages 449–461, April/May 2008
How to Cite
Friedman, R. and Elliot, A. J. (2008), The effect of arm crossing on persistence and performance. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 38: 449–461. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.444
- Issue published online: 20 MAR 2008
- Article first published online: 25 MAY 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 APR 2007
- Manuscript Received: 28 DEC 2006
Two experiments investigated the hypothesis that arm crossing serves as a proprioceptive cue for perseverance within achievement settings. Experiment 1 found that inducing participants to cross their arms led to greater persistence on an unsolvable anagram. Experiment 2 revealed that arm crossing led to better performance on solvable anagrams, and that this effect was mediated by greater persistence. No differences in comfort, instruction adherence, or mood were observed between the arms crossed and control conditions, and participants appeared to be unaware of the effect of arm crossing on their behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the interplay between proprioceptive cues and contextual meaning. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.