Gender differences in distributive negotiation: When in the negotiation process do the differences occur?



This study tested whether the degree of association among aspiration level, intended opening offer, actual first offer, actual counter-offer, and final agreement was moderated by negotiator gender. Results show that gender does moderate the association between the predictor variable of intended opening offer and the criterion variable of actual first offer and the relationship between intended opening offer and actual counter-offer. Interesting, this latter association was statistically non-significant for women and statistically significant for men. These results suggest that gender differences disadvantaging women seem to manifest with the actual first offer and the actual counter-offer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.