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Abstract

Self-image is deeply affected by social evaluations. One source of evaluation is respect, individuals' perceptions of their inclusion within, and value to, the group. Despite the importance of respect to the self-concept, the study of affective responses to disrespectful experiences has been largely neglected. A series of three studies focused on the following questions: (1) which emotions accompany the experience of disrespect? (2) how does gender influence emotional responses? and (3) how does disrespect differ emotionally from other interpersonal evaluations (i.e., disliking)? Results shed light on gender differences in emotional responses to disrespect, with men appearing to be more concerned with respect and responding to disrespect with more anger, whereas women were more likely to be sad. Implications for the study of respect and disrespect as social evaluations, and sex differences in reactions to these evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.