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Keywords:

  • Electrical impedance;
  • Clinical diagnostics;
  • Biosensor designs;
  • Tissue engineering;
  • Nanomaterials;
  • Pathogens

Abstract

Dielectric spectroscopy or Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is traditionally used in corrosion monitoring, coatings evaluation, batteries, and electrodeposition and semiconductor characterization. However, in recent years, it is gaining widespread application in biotechnology, tissue engineering, and characterization of biological cells, disease diagnosis and cell culture monitoring. This article discusses the principles and implementation of dielectric spectroscopy in these bioanalytical applications. It provides examples of EIS as label-free, mediator-free strategies for rapid screening of biocompatible surfaces, monitoring pathogenic bacteria, as well as the analysis of heterogeneous systems, especially biological cells and tissues. Descriptions are given of the application of nanoparticles to improve the analytical sensitivities in EIS. Specific examples are given of the detection of base pair mismatches in the DNA sequence of Hepatitis B disease, TaySach's disease and Microcystis spp. Others include the EIS detection of viable pathogenic bacteria and the influence of nanomaterials in enhancing biosensor performance. Expanding applications in tissue engineering such as adsorption of proteins onto thiolated hexa(ethylene glycol)-terminated (EG6) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) are discussed.