• Carbon nanotubes;
  • Bismuth;
  • Stripping voltammetry;
  • Heavy metals;
  • Chemically modified electrodes


Multiwall carbon nanotubes were dispersed in Nafion (MWCNTs-NA) solution and used in combination with bismuth (MWCNTs-NA/Bi) for fabricating composite sensors to determine trace Pb(II) and Cd(II) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The electrochemical properties of the MWCNTs-NA/Bi composites film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were evaluated. The synergistic effect of MWCNTs and bismuth composite film was obtained for Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection with improved sensitivity and reproducibility. Linear calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 100 μg/L for Pb(II) and 0.08 to 100 μg/L for Cd(II). The determination limits (S/N=3) were 25 ng/L for Pb and 40 ng/L for Cd, which compared favorably with previously reported methods in the area of electrochemical Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection. The MWCNTs-NA/Bi composite film electrodes were successfully applied to determine Pb(II) and Cd(II) in real sample, and the results of the present method agreed well with those of atomic absorption spectroscopy.