A Decade with Bismuth-Based Electrodes in Electroanalysis



In this article, the decade of electroanalysis with bismuth-based electrodes is reviewed (with 222 refs.). Emphasis is put on the environmentally friendly (“green”) character of bismuth electrodes, their versatility and variability in use, as well as the actual classification of the individual types of electrodes, sensors, and detectors that utilize the unique properties of metallic bismuth. Of particular interest is the genesis of the field, when the respective activities and achievements are monitored year by year over the whole period of 2000–2009, including the circumstances of the introduction of bismuth-coated electrodes into electrochemical stripping analysis. The review highlights all the significant milestones and break-points that had directed the experimental work around the globe, outlining the present day's position of this lively, inspiring, and still highly prospective area. Finally, it provides a special insight into electroanalysis with bismuth electrodes through numerous surveys, summaries, and detailed statistical data obtained by analyzing the accessible literature database.