• Cytochrome P450;
  • Electrochemical enzyme activation;
  • Human liver microsomes;
  • Protein film voltammetry;
  • Redox enzyme


The natural catalytic cycle of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in human liver microsome (HLM) films was activated electrochemically via the electron transfer sequence electrode[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]cyt P450 reductase (CPR)[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]cyt P450. Cyclic voltammograms for HLM films had midpoint potentials of −0.50 V vs. SCE at pH 7.4 characteristic of CPR, not cyt P450s. HLM and CPR microsomes without cyt P450s did not electrocatalytically reduce H2O2, and did not shift midpoint potential when CO was added, also indicating that the peaks do not correspond to iron heme cyt P450 enzymes. Electrochemical activation of the natural cyt P450 cycle for substrate conversion via CPR in HLM films was confirmed by catalytic electrolysis in an electrochemical microfluidic array designed to generate and detect reactive metabolites by measuring their reactivity with DNA.