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Keywords:

  • Biomarkers;
  • Capillary eletrophoresis;
  • Mass spectrometry;
  • Prostate neoplasms;
  • Prostate-specific antigen;
  • Urine

Abstract

We describe the use of capillary eletrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify single polypeptides and patterns of polypeptides specific for prostate cancer (CaP) in human urine. Using improved sample preparation methods that enable enhanced comparability between different samples, we examined samples from 47 patients who underwent prostate biopsy. Of this group, 21 patients had benign pathology and 26 with CaP, and these were used to define potential biomarkers, which allow discrimination between these two states. In addition, CE-MS data from these 47 urine samples were compared to that of 41 young men (control) without known or suspected clinical CaP to further confirm the polypeptides indicative for CaP. Upon crossvalidation of the same samples, several polypeptides were selected that enabled correct classification of the CaP patients with 92% sensitivity and 96% specificity. We then examined an additional 474 samples from patients with renal disease enrolled in other studies and found that 14 (3%) had polypeptides suggestive of CaP possibly indicating that they harbor clinical CaP. In conclusion, this early pilot study suggests that CE-MS of urine warrants further investigation as a tool that can identify putative biomarkers for CaP.