Chemical cytometry, referring to the analysis of the chemical contents in individual cells, has been in intensive study since Kennedy's first work that was published in Science. The early researches relied on fine-tip capillaries to capture the cells and do the analyses, which were lab- and time-intensive and required high skills of operation. The emergence of microfluidics has greatly spurred this research field and a great number of research papers have been published in the last decades. Highly integrated microfluidic chips have been developed to capture multiple single cells, lyse them, perform chemical reactions in enclosed microchambers, separate contents by CE and detect chemical species in individual cells. This review focuses on the development of relevant components and their integration for on-chip chemical cytometry.