At first, a short history of the beginning of 2-DE is provided. Based on the present state of the art at the time I developed a 2-DE technique in 1975 that was able to resolve complex protein extracts from mouse tissues in hundreds of protein spots. My intention was to study proteins from a global point of view. Questions of interest were, how do proteins change during embryonic development, and what is the effect of induced mutations on the protein level. At that time protein chemistry was a matter of analyzing single proteins in detail. Therefore, my approach was frequently criticized as inappropriate because it would be impossible to identify and characterize the hundreds of proteins resolved. But soon it was realized that studying total proteins gives opportunities to answer many interesting questions. This led to a research field nowadays called “proteomics”. Already in the beginning of the 1980s the idea to analyze the total human proteins had come up. By entering the post-genome era it became obvious that a human proteome project is needed in order to explain the human genome in terms of its functions. The problems in realizing such a project are considered.