The review brings a comprehensive survey of the recent developments of high-performance electroseparation methods in capillary and microchip formats: zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, isoelectric focusing, affinity electrophoresis, electrokinetic chromatography and electrochromatography. Applications of these techniques to analysis, isolation, purification and physicochemical and biochemical characterization of peptides are described. Advances in the investigation of electromigration properties of peptides, and in the methodology of their analysis, such as sample preparation, adsorption suppression, EOF control and detection, are presented. New developments, in particular, CE and CEC modes are reported and several types of their applications to peptide analysis are described: conventional qualitative and quantitative analysis, determination in complex (bio)matrices, monitoring of chemical and enzymatical reactions and physical changes, amino acid, sequence and chiral analysis, and peptide mapping of proteins. Some micropreparative peptide separations are shown and capabilities of CE and CEC techniques to provide relevant physicochemical characteristics of peptides are demonstrated.