Echinoderms, as invertebrate deuterostomes, have amazing neuronal intrinsic growth aptitude triggered at any time point during the animal lifespan leading to successful functional tissue regrowth. This trait is known to be in opposition to their mammal close phylogenic relatives that have lost the ability to regenerate their central nervous system. Despite the promising nature of this intrinsic echinoderm trait, it was only recently that this complex biological event started to be unveiled. In the present study, a 2DE gel-based phosphoproteomics approach was used to investigate changes in starfish neuronal protein phosphorylation states at two different wound healing time-graded events following arm tip amputation, 48 h and 13 days. Among the resolved protein spots in 3.0–5.6 NL pH IEF strips, 190, 142, and 124 had a phosphoprotein signal in the control and the two injury experimental groups, respectively. Gel image analysis, highlighted 129 spots with an injury-related protein phosphorylation dynamics, several being exclusively phosphorylated in controls (72 spots), injured nerves (8 spots) or, showing significantly different phosphorylation ratios (37 spots). Within these, a total of 43 proteins were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF. Altogether, several intervening proteins of important injury-signaling pathways that seem to be modulated through phosphorylation, were identified for the first time in starfish radial nerve cord early regeneration events. These include cytoskeleton re-organization toward the formation of the neuronal growth cones; cell membrane rearrangements, actin filaments, and microtubules dynamics; mRNA binding and transport; lipid signaling; Notch pathway; and neuropeptide processing.