Developments in coupled solid-phase extraction–capillary electrophoresis 2011–2013


  • Colour Online: See the article online to view Figs. 1–7 in colour.


This article presents an overview of the design and application of coupled SPE–CE systems that have been reported in the literature between January 2011 and June 2013. The present paper is an update of three previous review papers covering the years 2000–2011 (Electrophoresis 2008, 29, 108–128; Electrophoresis 2010, 31, 44–54; Electrophoresis 2012, 33, 243–250). The use of in-line and on-line SPE–CE approaches is described in this review. Emerging technological developments, such as the use of in-line frit-free SPE and chip-based SPE for extraction of sample components prior to CE analysis, are outlined. Selected examples illustrate the applicability of SPE–CE in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. A complete overview of recent SPE–CE studies is given in table format, providing information on sample type, SPE sorbent, coupling mode, detection mode, and LOD. Finally, some general conclusions and future perspectives are provided.