Trace Metals in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactors: Bioavailability and Dosing Strategies



The trace metal dynamics in anaerobic granular sludge bed reactors and their influence on reactor performance is reviewed in this paper. An insight into the metal dynamics is required from a practical point of view in order to be able to early recognize limitations for essential trace elements, viz., to know when dosing of these elements is required in full-scale anaerobic bioreactor applications. Further such knowledge is indispensable for a rational dosage of these metals, e.g., to ensure maximum substrate conversion rates and to prevent disturbances in reactor performance using a minimum amount of metals. Therefore, the retention, accumulation and release of trace metals in anaerobic granular sludge and the factors affecting these processes need to be known.