Textile industry uses azo dyes in its processes, which are complex organic molecules that are not easy to be degraded. Reactive dyes are especially difficult to remove from wastewater because of the characteristics of the molecule: one or more azo bonds, naphthalene-disulfonate, triazine or chloro-triazine, and phenyl-amine groups. The degradation of the azo dye reactive red 272 was studied under anaerobic conditions in a hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASB) with an activated carbon bed. An adapted consortium of microorganisms was used in the kinetic study (batch) and to inoculate the UASB reactor. The experimental design identified the main factors determining the dye reduction efficiency are the initial concentration of dye and dextrose (as electron donor) and the residence time in the reactor. Dye reduction rate was decreased as the concentration increases in the wastewater; as a result, a kinetic model with a change from first to second order is proposed. The kinetic study showed that the process is first abiotic (adsorption) and then biotic (biodegradation).