Within the last decade, biotechnology gained pace in substituting petro-based products for the chemical industries. This is visible with the appearance of bio-based products in the market, from biosurfactants to bio-based polymers like polylactic acid to bio-ethylene. These technologies are mainly based on established fermentation technologies fostered by the use of renewable resources, culminating in the establishment of biorefineries that may be connected directly to the existing chemical infrastructure. Besides these large-scale technologies, the combination of molecular technologies, microfluidic devices, and enzymatic and cell-free conversions are currently developed to create new bioproduction systems enabling the production of compounds that may not be produced within a cell. This article summarizes some of the current ideas that are currently in development paving the way for a next generation of biotechnology.