Nowadays, the field of proteomics encompasses various techniques for the analysis of the entirety of proteins in biological samples. Not only 2D electrophoresis as the primary method, but also MS-based workflows and bioinformatic tools are being increasingly applied. In particular, research in microbiology was significantly influenced by proteomics during the last few decades. Hence, this review presents results of proteomic studies carried out in areas, such as fundamental microbiological research and biotechnology. In addition, the emerging field of metaproteomics is addressed because high-throughput genome sequencing and high-performance MS facilitate the access to such complex samples from microbial communities as found in sludge from wastewater treatment plants and biogas plants. Both current technical limitations and new concepts in this growing and important area are discussed. Moreover, it was convincingly shown that future prospective applications of proteomics in technical and environmental microbiology might also be closely connected with other Omics approaches as well as bioinformatics for systems biology studies.