Engineering in Life Sciences

Cover image for Engineering in Life Sciences

December, 2005

Volume 5, Issue 6

Pages 485–590

    1. Overview Contents: Eng. Life Sci. 6/2005 (page 485)

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200590010

    2. Contents: Eng. Life Sci. 6/2005 (pages 487–489)

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200590011

    3. Fate of Pesticides in the Environment and its Bioremediation (pages 497–526)

      M. Gavrilescu

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520098

      Pesticides are Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). When they are applied to different places in various ways they become mobile in the environment and interact with soil, surface water, and groundwater. Their fate in the environment – their transport, transfer and transformation – is analyzed correlated with biological, physical and chemical factors. Both in situ and ex situ bioremediation of the environment contaminated with pesticides are discussed as alternatives that offer the possibility to degrade pesticides by means of the biological activity of microorganisms and free enzymes.

    4. Biosafe Ginseng: A Novel Source for Human Well-Being (pages 527–533)

      G. Sivakumar, K. W. Yu and K. Y. Paek

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520100

      The root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer, so-called ginseng, has been widely used as a tonic and highly prized medicine since ancient times. Ginseng has been recognized as a miraculous promoter of health and longevity. Pilot-scale bioreactor cultivation of adventitious roots of ginseng and the enhanced production of pesticide-free bioactive phytomolecules are being reviewed.

    5. Bioleaching of Heavy Metal Polluted Sediment: Kinetics of Leaching and Microbial Sulfur Oxidation (pages 535–549)

      C. Löser, A. Zehnsdorf, K. Görsch and H. Seidel

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520104

      Heavy metal contaminated aquatic sediment is still an unresolved environmental problem. The currently prevalent disposal of polluted dredged sediment in landfills cannot be regarded as a long-term solution and sound remedial methods are needed, in which the pollutants are separated from the sediment. Remediation through bioleaching using elemental sulfur (S0) as the leaching agent is a process involving two steps: the microbial oxidation of the added S0 to sulfuric acid, and the reaction of the produced acid with the sediment. Here, both subprocesses were studied in detail with particular emphasis on pH and metal solubilization depending on the reaction time and the amount of leaching agent applied.

    6. Kinetic Modeling of Amino Acid Oxidation Catalyzed by a New D-Amino Acid Oxidase from Arthrobacter protophormiae (pages 550–555)

      Z. Findrik, D. Vasić-Rački, B. Geueke, M. Kuzu and W. Hummel

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520105

      D-Amino acid oxidases (D-AAOs) are used in the synthesis of antibiotics. Their broad substrate specificity and stereospecificity are also of great importance in other applications. In developing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction for large-scale production, modeling of the reaction kinetics as a tool for reaction engineering plays an important role. Therefore, the kinetics of the oxidative deamination catalyzed by a new D-AAO from Arthrobacter protophormiae was studied in detail. The enzyme was kinetically characterized using two structurally different substrates (D-methionine and D-DOPA).

    7. Effect of Environmental Factors in Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis on the Growth and Activity of Propionic Acid Bacteria Evaluated by Pressure Measurement (pages 556–561)

      H. Benjelloun and J.-M. Lebeault

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520106

      Dairy propionibacteria are essential starters in Swiss-type cheeses. They grow during ripening and transform the lactate into propionate, acetate, and CO2. Depending on the technology of cheese making and the ripening conditions, propionibacteria can be applied to different environments. An online technique based on pressure measurements has been used to study the effects of environmental factors (salt content, pH, temperature, aerobiosis and anaerobiosis) on the growth and metabolite production of P. shermanii.

    8. Optimization of Glycoalkaloid Analysis for Use in Industrial Potato Fruit Juice Downstreaming (pages 562–567)

      V. Alt, R. Steinhof, M. Lotz, R. Ulber, C. Kasper and T. Scheper

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520107

      In recent years the potato protein content has gained tremendous industrial interests, since these proteins have excellent nutritional value. As typical food processing like boiling, cooking, baking, frying, and microwaving does not destroy potato glycoalkaloids, it was essential to develop a simple and efficient extraction procedure for analyzing numerous powdery potato protein samples in a short period of time.

    9. Influence of Nitrate and Sulfate on the Anaerobic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater (pages 568–573)

      M. J. Rodríguez, G. Y. Garza, C. A. Aguilera, A. S. Y. Martínez and S. G. J. Sosa

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520101

      One of the most interesting processes of biological treatment of wastewater is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process (UASB). The key to the process was the discovery that anaerobic sludge inherently has superior flocculation and settling characteristics, provided the physical and chemical conditions for sludge flocculation are favorable. The UASB reactor is one of the reactor types with high loading capacity and differs from other reactor types by the simplicity of its design.

    10. Exploring the Phospholipid Biosynthetic Pathways of Aspergillus fumigatus by Computational Genome Analysis (pages 574–579)

      J. H. Do, B. O. Lim, W. S. Choi and D.-K. Choi

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520102

      Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous fungus, causes allergies, noninvasive colonization, or life-threatening invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Despite some advances in therapy, currently available drugs for the treatment of aspergillosis continue to be hampered by problems with efficacy, toxicity, and the emergence of drug resistance. For the development of future potential drug targets it is important to know the phospholipid metabolic pathways in A. fumigatus.

    11. Improved Properties of Bacillus coagulans β-Galactosidase through Immobilization (pages 581–584)

      N. Batra, J. Singh, A. Joshi and R. C. Sobti

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200520103

      β-Galactosidase hydrolyses the non-reducing terminal β-galactose residues from oligosaccharides including lactose. There is a need to remove this lactose since a large proportion of the human population are intolerant to it. The hydrolysis products of lactose, glucose, and galactose, are, however, easily absorbed from the intestine and metabolized. This is the first study that aims to immobilize the thermostable β-galactosidase from Bacillus coagulans, allowing for a considerable improvement in the enzyme stability and making β-galactosidase a good candidate for the dairy industry.

    12. Author Index Eng. Life Sci. 2005 (pages 589–590)

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/elsc.200590012

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