SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Aguilar F, Hussain SP, Cerutti P. 1993. Aflatoxin B1 induces the transversion of G[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]T in codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in human hepatocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 85868590.
  • Baker SJ, Preisinger AC, Jessup JM, Paraskeva C, Markowitz S, Willson JK, Hamilton S, Vogelstein B. 1990. p53 gene mutations occur in combination with 17p allelic deletions as late events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 50: 77177722.
  • Barbareschi M. 1993. Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expression of p53 in breast carcinomas: a review of the literature involving over 9,000 patients. Appl Immunohistochem 4: 106116.
  • Bartek J, Iggo R, Gannon J, Lane DP. 1990. Genetic and immunochemical analysis of mutant p53 in human breast cancer cell lines. Oncogene 5: 893899.
  • Bartek J, Bartkova J, Vojtesek B, Staskova Z, Lukas J, Rejthar A, Kovarik J, Midgley CA, Gannon JV, Lane DP. 1991. Aberrant expression of the p53 oncoprotein is a common feature of a wide spectrum of human malignancies. Oncogene 6: 16991703.
  • Bartek J, Bartkova J, Lukas J, Staskova A, Vojtesek B, Lane DP. 1993. Immunohistochemical analysis of the p53 oncoprotein on paraffin sections using a series of novel monoclonal antibodies. J Pathol 169: 2731.
  • Beer AE, Billingham RE. 1978. Adipose tissue, a neglected factor in aetiology of breast cancer? Lancet 2: 296.
  • Biggs PJ, Warren W, Venitt S, Stratton MR. 1993. Does a genotoxic carcinogen contribute to human breast cancer? The value of mutational spectra in unravelling the aetiology of cancer. Mutagenesis 8: 275283.
  • Blaszyk H, Vaughn CB, Hartmann A, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Cunningham J, Schaid D, Sommer SS, Kovach JS. 1994. Novel pattern of p53 gene mutations in an American black cohort with high mortality from breast cancer. Lancet 343: 11951197.
  • Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Schroeder JJ, McGovern RM, Sommer SS, Kovach JS. 1995. Rapid and efficient screening for p53 gene mutations by dideoxyfingerprinting (ddF). BioTechniques 18: 256260.
  • Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Tamura Y, Saitoh S, Cunningham JM, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Schaid DJ. 1996. Molecular epidemiology of breast cancers in northern and southern Japan: the frequency, clustering, and patterns of p53 gene mutations differ among these two low-risk populations. Oncogene 13: 21592166.
  • Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Cunningham JM, Schaid D, Wold LE, Kovach JS, Sommer SS. 2000. A prospective trial of midwest breast cancer patients: a p53 gene mutation is the most important predictor of adverse outcome. Int J Cancer 89: 3238.
  • Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T, Montgomery S. 1994. Cancer statistics, 1994. CA Cancer J Clin 44: 726.
  • Bottema CDK, Bottema MJ, Ketterling RP, Yoon H-S, Janco RL, Phillips JA III, Sommer SS. 1991. Why does the human factor IX gene have a G + C content of 40%? Am J Hum Genet 49: 839850.
  • Bottema CDK, Ketterling RP, Vielhaber E, Yoon H-S, Gostout B, Jacobson DP, Shapiro A, Sommer SS. 1993. The pattern of spontaneous germline mutation: relative rates of mutation at or near CpG dinucleotides in the factor IX gene. Hum Genet 91: 496503.
  • Brash DE, Rudolph JA, Simon JA, Lin A, McKenna GJ, Baden HP, Halperin AJ, Ponten J. 1991. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 1012410128.
  • Bressac B, Kew M, Wands J, Ozturk M. 1991. Selective G to T mutations of p53 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma from southern Africa. Nature 350: 429431.
  • Buettner VL, Hill KA, Nishino H, Schaid DJ, Frisk CS, Sommer SS. 1996. Increased mutation frequency and altered spectrum in one of four thymic lymphomas derived from tumor prone p53/Big Blue transgenic mice. Oncogene 13: 24072413.
  • Buettner VL, Nishino H, Haavik J, Knöll A, Hill KA, Sommer SS. 1997. Spontaneous mutation frequencies and spectra in p53 (+/+) and p53 (−/−) mice: a test of the “guardian of the genome” hypothesis in the Big Blue transgenic mouse mutation detection system. Mutat Res 379: 1320.
  • Bulmer M. 1986. Neighboring base effects on substitution rates in pseudogenes. Mol Biol Evol 3: 322329.
  • Byers T. 1994. Nutritional risk factors for breast cancer [review]. Cancer 74: 288295.
  • Chappuis PO, Estreicher A, Dieterich B, Bonnefoi H, Otter M, Sappino AP, Iggo R. 1999. Prognostic significance of p53 mutation in breast cancer: frequent detection of non-missense mutations by yeast functional assay. Int J Cancer 84: 587593.
  • Chen JX, Zheng Y, West M, Tang MS. 1998. Carcinogens preferentially bind at methylated CpG in the p53 mutational hot spots. Cancer Res 58: 20702075.
  • Chiba I, Takahashi T, Nau MM, D'Amico D, Curiel DT, Mitsudomi T, Buchhagen DL, Carbone D, Piantadosi S, Koga H. 1990. Mutations in the p53 gene are frequent in primary, resected non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer Study Group. Oncogene 5: 16031610.
  • Clavel-Chapelon F, Niravong M, Joseph RR. 1997. Diet and breast cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. Cancer Detect Prev 21: 426440.
  • Coleman MP. 2000. Trends in breast cancer incidence, survival, and mortality [letter]. Lancet 356: 590591.
  • Coleman MP, Esteve J, Damiecki P, Arslan A, Renard H. 1993. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality. IARC Sci Publ 121: 1806.
  • Davidoff AM, Herndon JEII, Glover NS, Kerns B-JM, Pence JC, Iglehart JD, Marks JR. 1991. Relation between p53 overexpression and established prognostic factors in breast cancer. Surgery 110: 259264.
  • Drost JB, Scaringe WA, Jaloma-Cruz AR, Li X, Ossa DF, Kasper CK, Sommer SS. 2000. Novel hotspot detector software reveals a non-CpG hotspot of germline mutation in the factor IX gene (F9) in Latin Americans. Hum Mutat 16: 203210.
  • El-Bayoumy K. 1992. Environmental carcinogens that may be involved in human breast cancer etiology. Chem Res Toxicol 5: 585590.
  • Feng J, Drost JB, Scaringe WA, Liu Q, Sommer SS. 2002. The relative rates of ancient germline mutations during human evolution are similar to those of recent germline mutations. Hum Mutat 19: 4957.
  • Friedberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W. 1995. DNA repair and mutagenesis. Washington, DC: ASM Press. 694 p
  • Friedenreich C, Marrett LD. 2001. Workshop report: identification of research needs breast cancer etiology. Chronic Dis Can 22: 4149.
  • Gojobori T, Li WH, Graur D. 1982. Patterns of nucleotide substitution in pseudogenes and functional genes. J Mol Evol 18: 360369.
  • Gostout B, Vielhaber E, Ketterling RP, Yoon H-S, Bottema CDK, Kasper CK, Koerper M, Sommer SS. 1993. Germline mutations in the factor IX gene: a comparison of the pattern in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Hum Mol Genet 2: 293298.
  • Greenblatt MS, Bennett WP, Hollstein M, Harris CC. 1994. Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene: clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res 54: 48554878.
  • Habuchi T, Takahashi R, Yamada H, Ogawa O, Kakehi Y, Ogura K, Hamazaki S, Toguchida J, Ishizaki K, Fujita J, Sugiyama T, Yoshida O. 1993. Influence of cigarette smoking and schistosomiasis on p53 gene mutation in urothelial cancer. Cancer Res 53: 37953799.
  • Harris CC. 1996a. Structure and function of the p53 tumor suppressor gene: clues for rational cancer therapeutic strategies. J Natl Cancer Inst 88: 14421455.
  • Harris CC. 1996b. 53 tumor suppressor gene: from the basic research laboratory to the clinic—an abridged historical perspective. Carcinogenesis 17: 11871198.
  • Harris CC, Hollstein M. 1993. Clinical implications of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene. N Engl J Med 329: 13181327.
  • Harris PJ, Vallappilakkandy KS, Roberton AM, Triggs CM, Blakeney AB, Ferguson LR. 1998. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to cereal brans and cereal bran dietary fibres. Mutat Res 412: 323331.
  • Hartmann A, Blaszyk H, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Cunningham J, DeVries EMG, Kovach JS, Sommer SS. 1995a. p53 gene mutations inside and outside of exons 5–8: the patterns differ in breast and other cancers. Oncogene 10: 681688.
  • Hartmann A, Rosanelli G, Blaszyk H, Cunningham JM, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Schaid DJ, Kovach JS, Sommer SS. 1995b. Novel pattern of p53 mutation in breast cancers from Austrian women. J Clin Invest 95: 686689.
  • Hartmann A, Blaszyk H, Saitoh S, Tsushima K, Tamura Y, Cunningham JM, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Sommer SS, Kovach JS. 1996. High frequency of p53 mutations in primary breast cancers in Japanese women, a low-incidence population. Br J Cancer 73: 896901.
  • Heinmoller E, Liu, Q, Sun, S, Schlake G, Hill, KA, Weiss LM, Sommer SS. 2002. Toward efficient analysis of mutations in single cells from ethanol-fixed, paraffin-emmbedded and immunohistochemically-stained tissues. Laboratory Investigations (in press).
  • Heit JA, Thorland EC, Ketterling RP, Lind TJ, Daniels TM, Zapata RE, Ordonez SM, Kasper CK, Sommer SS. 1998. Germline mutations in Peruvian patients with hemophilia B: pattern of mutation in AmerIndians is similar to the putative endogenous germline pattern. Hum Mutat 11: 372376.
  • Hietanen E, Punnonen K, Punnonen R, Auvinen O. 1986. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids and neutral lipids and lipid peroxidation in human breast cancer and lipoma tissue. Carcinogenesis 7: 19651969.
  • Higginson J, Muir CS, Munoz N. 1992. Human cancer: epidemiology and environmental causes. In: Anonymous. Cambridge Monographs on Cancer Research. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p 377387.
  • Hsu IC, Metcalf RA, Sun T, Welsh JA, Wang NJ, Harris CC. 1991. Mutational hotspot in the p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Nature 350: 427428.
  • Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Adami HO, Beeson L, van den Brandt PA, Folsom AR, Fraser GE, Goldbohm RA, Graham S, Howe GR. 1996. Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer—a pooled analysis [see comments]. N Engl J Med 334: 356361.
  • Hussain SP, Harris CC. 1999. p53 mutation spectrum and load: the generation of hypotheses linking the exposure of endogenous or exogenous carcinogens to human cancer. Mutat Res 428: 2332.
  • Kaplan RM, Wingard DL. 2000. Trends in breast cancer incidence, survival, and mortality [letter]. Lancet 356: 592593.
  • Kastan MB, Zhan Q, El-Deiry WS, Carrier F, Jacks T, Walsh WV, Plunkett BS, Vogelstein B, Fornace AJ Jr. 1992. A mammalian cell cycle checkpoint pathway utilizing p53 and GADD45 is defective in ataxia-telangiectasia. Cell 71: 587597.
  • Ketterling RP, Vielhaber E, Sommer SS. 1994. The rates of G:C[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]T:A and G:C[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]C:G transversions at CpG dinucleotides in the human factor IX gene. Am J Hum Genet 54: 831835.
  • Kovach JS, McGovern RM, Cassady JD, Swanson SK, Wold LE, Vogelstein B, Sommer SS. 1991. Direct sequencing from touch preparations of human carcinomas: analysis of p53 mutations in breast carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 10041009.
  • Kovach JS, Hartmann A, Blaszyk H, Cunningham J, Schaid D, Sommer SS. 1996. Mutation detection by highly sensitive methods indicates that p53 gene mutations in breast cancer can have important prognostic value. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 10931096.
  • Lane DP. 1992. p53, guardian of the genome. Nature 358: 1516.
  • Li D, Cao Y, He L, Wang NJ, Gu JR. 1993. Aberrations of p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma from China. Carcinogenesis 14: 169173.
  • Li WH, Wu CI, Luo CC. 1984. Nonrandomness of point mutation as reflected in nucleotide substitutions in pseudogenes and its evolutionary implications. J Mol Evol 21: 5871.
  • Li X, Drost JB, Roberts S, Kasper C, Sommer SS. 2000. Factor IX mutations in South Africans and African Americans are compatible with primarily endogenous influences upon recent germline mutations. Hum Mutat Mutation in Brief Online 367.
  • Liu JZ, Li X, Drost J, Thorland EC, Liu Q, Lind T, Roberts S, Wang HY, Sommer SS. 2000. The human factor IX gene as germline mutagen test: samples from mainland China have the putatively endogenous pattern of mutation. Hum Mutat 16: 3136.
  • Livingstone LR, White A, Sprouse J, Livanos E, Jacks T, Tlsty TD. 1992. Altered cell cycle arrest and gene amplification potential accompany loss of wild-type p53. Cell 70: 923935.
  • Lok E, Ratnayake WM, Scott FW, Mongeau R, Fernie S, Nera EA, Malcolm S, McMullen E, Jee P, Clayson DB. 1992. Effect of varying the type of fat in a semi-purified AIN-76A diet on cellular proliferation in the mammary gland and intestinal crypts in female Swiss Webster mice. Carcinogenesis 13: 17351741.
  • Lowe SW, Ruley HE, Jacks T, Housman DE. 1993. p53-dependent apoptosis modulates the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents. Cell 74: 957967.
  • Manjanatha MG, Shelton SD, Culp SJ, Blankenship LR, Casciano DA. 2000. DNA adduct formation and molecular analysis of in vivo lacI mutations in the mammary tissue of Big Blue rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Carcinogenesis 21: 265273.
  • Martin FL, Venitt S, Carmichael PL, Crofton-Sleigh C, Stone EM, Cole KJ, Gusterson BA, Grover PL, Phillips DH. 1997. DNA damage in breast epithelial cells: detection by the single-cell gel (comet) assay and induction by human mammary lipid extracts. Carcinogenesis 18: 22992305.
  • Martin FL, Pfau W, Cole KJ, Venitt S, Fay LB, Marquardt H, Phillips DH, Grover PL. 1998a. Morphological transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts by extracts of human mammary lipid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251: 182189.
  • Martin FL, Pfau W, Venitt S, Carmichael PL, Crofton-Sleigh C, Cole KJ, Stone EM, Marquardt H, Grover PL, Phillips DH. 1998b. DNA strand breaks and cell transformation induced by human mammary lipid extracts. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 39: 57345739.
  • Martin FL, Cole KJ, Weaver G, Williams JA, Millar BC, Grover PL, Phillips DH. 1999. Genotoxicity of human milk extracts and detection of DNA damage in exfoliated cells recovered from breast milk. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 259: 319326.
  • Millikan R, DeVoto E, Newman B, Savitz D. 1995. Studying environmental influences and breast cancer risk: suggestions for an integrated population-based approach. Breast Cancer Res Treat 35: 7989.
  • Morley AA, Turner DR. 1999. The contribution of exogenous and endogenous mutagens to in vivo mutations. Mutat Res 428: 1115.
  • Petrakis NL, Maack CA, Lee RE, Lyon M. 1980. Mutagenic activity in nipple aspirates of human breast fluid [letter]. Cancer Res 40: 188189.
  • Prosser J, Thompson AM, Cranston G, Evans HJ. 1990. Evidence that p53 behaves as a tumour suppressor gene in sporadic breast tumours. Oncogene 5: 15731579.
  • Saad S, Rowley G, Tagliavacca L, Green PM, Giannelli F, UK Haemophilia Centers. 1994. First report on UK database of haemophilia B mutations and pedigrees. Thromb Haemost 71: 563570.
  • Saitoh S, Cunningham J, DeVries EMG, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Hartmann A, Blaszyk H, Schaid D, Sommer SS, Kovach JS. 1994. p53 gene mutations in breast cancers in Midwestern U.S. women: null as well as missense-type mutations are associated with poor prognosis. Oncogene 9: 28692875.
  • Sands AT, Suraokar MB, Sanchez A, Marth JE, Donehower LA, Bradley A. 1995. p53 deficiency does not affect the accumulation of point mutations in a transgene target. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 85178521.
  • Sarkar G, Yoon H-S, Sommer SS. 1992. Dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF): a rapid and efficient screen for the presence of mutations. Genomics 13: 441443.
  • Scorsone KA, Zhou YZ, Butel JS, Slagle BL. 1992. p53 mutations cluster at codon 249 in hepatitis B virus-positive hepatocellular carcinomas from China. Cancer Res 52: 16351638.
  • Skopek TR, Kort KL, Marino DR, Mittal LV, Umbenhauer DR, Laws GM, Adams SP. 1996. Mutagenic response of the endogenous hprt gene and lacI transgene in benzo[a]pyrene-treated Big Blue B6C3F1 mice. Environ Mol Mutagen 28: 376384.
  • Sommer SS. 1990. Mutagen test. Nature 346: 2223.
  • Sommer SS. 1994. Does cancer kill the individual and save the species? Hum Mutat 3: 166169.
  • Sommer SS, Ketterling RP. 1993. A postulated mechanism for deletions with inversions. Am J Hum Genet 52: 10161018.
  • Sommer SS, Scaringe WA, Hill KA. 2001. Human germline mutation in the factor IX gene. Mutat Res 487: 117.
  • Soussi T, Caron de Fromentel C, May P. 1990. Structural aspects of the p53 protein in relation to gene evolution. Oncogene 5: 945952.
  • Soussi T, Legros Y, Lubin R, Ory K, Schlichtholz B. 1994. Multifactorial analysis of p53 alteration in human cancer: a review. Int J Cancer 57: 19.
  • Stemmermann GN. 1991. The pathology of breast cancer in Japanese women compared to other ethnic groups: a review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 18: S67S72.
  • Takeshima Y, Seyama T, Bennett WP, Akiyama M, Tokuoka S, Inai K, Mabuchi K, Land CE, Harris CC. 1993. p53 mutations in lung cancers from non-smoking atomic-bomb survivors. Lancet 342: 15201521.
  • Thorland EC, Weinshenker BG, Liu J-Z, Ketterling RP, Vielhaber EL, Kasper CK, Ambriz R, Paredes R, Sommer SS. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of factor IX germline mutations in Mexican Hispanics: pattern of mutation and potential founder effects. Thromb Haemost 74: 14161422.
  • Varley JM, Brammar WJ, Lane DP, Swallow JE, Dolan C, Walker RA. 1991. Loss of chromosome 17p13 sequences and mutation of p53 in human breast carcinomas. Oncogene 6: 413421.
  • Walker VE, Gorelick NJ, Andrews JL, Craft TR, de Boer JG, Glickman BW, Skopek TR. 1996. Frequency and spectrum of ethylnitrosourea-induced mutation at the hprt and lacI loci in splenic lymphocytes of exposed lacI transgenic mice. Cancer Res 56: 46544661.
  • Welsch CW. 1994. Interrelationship between dietary lipids and calories and experimental mammary gland tumorigenesis. Cancer 74: 10551062.
  • Wink DA, Kasprzak KS, Maragos CM, Elespuru RK, Misra M, Dunams TM, Cebula TA, Koch WH, Andrews AW, Allen JS. 1991. DNA deaminating ability and genotoxicity of nitric oxide and its progenitors. Science 254: 10011003.
  • Woutersen RA, Appel MJ, van Garderen-Hoetmer A, Wijnands MV. 1999. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 443: 111127.
  • Wrensch MR, Petrakis NL, Gruenke LD, Miike R, Ernster VL, King EB, Hauck WW, Craig JC, Goodson WH. 1989. Breast fluid cholesterol and cholesterol beta-epoxide concentrations in women with benign breast disease [published erratum appears in Cancer Res 1989 Jul 1;49(13):3710]. Cancer Res 49: 21682174.
  • Wynder EL, Cohen LA, Muscat JE, Winters B, Dwyer JT, Blackburn G. 1997. Breast cancer: weighing the evidence for a promoting role of dietary fat [see comments]. J Natl Cancer Inst 89: 766775.
  • Xue L, Newmark H, Yang K, Lipkin M. 1996. Model of mouse mammary gland hyperproliferation and hyperplasia induced by a Western-style diet. Nutr Cancer 26: 281287.
  • Yin Y, Tainsky MA, Bischoff FZ, Strong LC, Wahl GM. 1992. Wild-type p53 restores cell cycle control and inhibits gene amplification in cells with mutant p53 alleles. Cell 70: 937948.
  • Zambetti GP, Levine AJ. 1993. A comparison of the biological activities of wild-type and mutant p53. FASEB J 7: 855865.
  • Ziegler RG, Hoover RN, Pike MC, Hildesheim A, Nomura AM, West DW, Wu-William AH, Kolonel LN, Horn-Ross PL, Rosenthal JF, Hyer MB. 1993. Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 18191827.