- Top of page
- Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: An inheritable human disease caused by mutations in cytoplasmic ARSs
- Defective mitochondrial ARS aminoacylation activity and disorders of mitochondrial metabolism
- ARSs as pharmacological targets against pathogenic microorganisms and in autoimmune disease
- Noncanonical functions of ARSs in regulating gene expression and cellular functions related to disease
- Concluding remarks
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential and ubiquitous ‘house-keeping’ enzymes responsible for charging amino acids to their cognate tRNAs and providing the substrates for global protein synthesis. Recent studies have revealed a role of multiple ARSs in pathology, and their potential use as pharmacological targets and therapeutic reagents. The ongoing discovery of genetic mutations in human ARSs is increasing exponentially and can be considered an important determinant of disease etiology. Several chemical compounds target bacterial, fungal and human ARSs as antibiotics or disease-targeting medicines. Remarkably, ongoing exploration of noncanonical functions of ARSs has shown important contributions to control of angiogenesis, inflammation, tumourigenesis and other important physiopathological processes. Here, we summarize the roles of ARSs in human diseases and medicine, focusing on the most recent and exciting discoveries.