Transparent graphene electrodes in III–V multijunction concentrator solar cells improved the cell efficiency by reducing the resistive power loss at high irradiance levels. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell increased by 13.8 % as a result of the decreased series resistance. Moreover, the irradiance level at which the maximum efficiency was reached increased upon using the graphene electrodes. This allows the solar cells to operate at higher concentration ratios, which can lead to a better performance and lower cost of the photovoltaic devices.
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