• bulk heterojunctions;
  • oxides;
  • photovoltaics;
  • polymers;
  • thin films


We review the recent developments and techniques applied to hybrid solar cells. Hybrid solar cells have progressed rapidly in the past few years. The highest efficiency of hybrid solar cells has exceeded 10 %, meeting the commercial requirement for production. In addition, their stability has been improved significantly using sandwiched structures with the enormous achievement of retaining their efficiency within 95 % of the maximum value after 4800 h in air without encapsulation. The synthesis of new organic photoactive materials has helped to induce high efficiencies, and new designs for the device structure have led to enhanced stability, which has been a major factor in enabling such significant progress in hybrid solar cells. The latest advances and achievements for hybrid solar cells will be reviewed in this paper.