Solar-photovoltaic systems are being widely used and promoted worldwide for pollution-free power generation. The power extraction from solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can be maximized by using maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) techniques between the photovoltaic array and the load. The MPPT technique searches the maximum-power-point and command system to enable operation at that point and enrich the overall efficiency of PV system. Substantial research has been performed on MPPT techniques to improve the efficiency, simplicity, response time, and steady-state error. In this paper, a study of 21 different maximum power point tracking techniques used in photovoltaic systems has been performed to provide the latest update on conventional and advanced techniques and highlight the main features and limitations. The modified variable step incremental conductance technique is found to be the best among all in terms of steady-state error, response time, convergence time, and efficiency. Possible areas of further research are also identified.