Energy Technology

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 4

Special Issue: Energy Storage Materials

April 2014

Volume 2, Issue 4

Pages 305–413

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Investigation of the Decomposition Mechanism of Lithium Bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) Salt in the Electrolyte of an Aprotic Li–O2 Battery (Energy Technol. 4/2014) (page 305)

      Kah Chun Lau, Jun Lu, John Low, Du Peng, Huiming Wu, Hassan M. Albishri, D. Abd Al-Hady, Larry A. Curtiss and Khalil Amine

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490006

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      Electrolyte Stability in Li–Air Batteries. A key challenge for the development of aprotic Li–O2 (Li–air) batteries is the stability of salts and solvents during charging and discharging. The free-energy surfaces of the lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) salt interacting with lithium peroxide (Li2O2) are studied by first-principles simulations to determine possible mechanisms for decomposition. The simulations were performed by using density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics, and metadynamics simulations as described in the Full Paper by scientists from Argonne National Laboratory on page 348. The theoretical findings suggest that the chemical decomposition of LiBOB in the electrolyte leads to the formation lithium oxalate during the operation of a Li–O2 cell. According to DFT calculations, the formation of lithium oxalate as the reaction product is exothermic and therefore is thermodynamically feasible. The decomposition was confirmed by experimental measurements. This reaction is independent of the solvent used in the Li–O2 cell, and therefore LiBOB is probably not suitable to be used as salt in Li–O2 cell electrolytes. The study illustrates how simulations can be used to help determine the causes of battery failure and help in the design of new electrolytes.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inside Cover: Supercapacitors Based on Flexible Substrates: An Overview (Energy Technol. 4/2014) (page 306)

      Dr. Deepak P. Dubal, Jong Guk Kim, Youngmin Kim, Prof. Rudolf Holze, Chandrakant D. Lokhande and Prof. Won Bae Kim

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490007

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      Flexible Supercapacitors: The Inside Cover picture illustrates flexible supercapacitors made with several different substrate types for which flexibility and mechanical stability are of the utmost importance. These devices can provide electrical energy to flexible, wearable, and lightweight electronics for portable applications. In the Review by Won Bae Kim, Rudolf Holze, and co-workers at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology and Technische Universität Chemnitz on page 325, the authors review the basic principles of flexible supercapacitors and the latest research advances that are moving this field forward. In particular, recent progress on flexible supercapacitor electrodes is reviewed with respect to bendable substrates, and their properties are discussed in detail.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial: Energy Storage Materials: A Special Issue of Energy Technology (pages 307–308)

      Prof. Jim Yang Lee

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201405002

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      Energy Storage Materials: The latest research on Li-ion batteries, Li–air batteries, and supercapacitors is described in this special topical issue on Energy Storage Materials, guest edited by Prof. Jim Yang Lee of the National University of Singapore. The introduction of renewables into the energy system necessitates a corresponding increase in the diversity of energy storage systems, with a wide spectrum of results presented here, from many of the leaders in their fields.

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: Energy Technol. 4/2014 (pages 309–314)

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490008

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. Review of Methods for Improving the Cyclic Stability of Li–Air Batteries by Controlling Cathode Reactions (pages 317–324)

      Dr. Ning Zhao, Prof. Chilin Li and Prof. Xiangxin Guo

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300149

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      Extended cycling: The rechargeable Li–air battery is a promising candidate for energy storage, especially in application to electrical vehicles. However, many technical obstacles such as the limited cyclic stability, low electrical energy efficiency, and poor rate capability must be solved prior to its practical use. This review focuses on methods for cycle extension by controlling the appropriate operation parameters.

    2. Supercapacitors Based on Flexible Substrates: An Overview (pages 325–341)

      Dr. Deepak P. Dubal, Jong Guk Kim, Youngmin Kim, Prof. Rudolf Holze, Chandrakant D. Lokhande and Prof. Won Bae Kim

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300144

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      Flexible supercapacitors: Recent research progress on flexible supercapacitor electrode materials is presented in this review, for which flexible metal, carbon paper or nanofoam, conventional paper, textiles, sponges, and cables with a thin conducting layers are used as substrates to fabricate high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

  5. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. Synthesis of Ultrathin GeO2–Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) Sheets for a High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anode (pages 342–347)

      De-Long Ma, Shuang Yuan, Dr. Xiao-Lei Huang and Prof. Zhan-Yi Cao

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300167

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      Read my LIBs: GeO2 is a promising high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, a simple, cheap, and easily scaled-up synthetic procedure for preparing ultrathin GeO2–reduced graphene oxide sheets is demonstrated using a freeze-drying method. As a high-performance anode material for LIBs, the composite shows high specific capacity, cycling performance, and rate capability.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Reviews
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. Investigation of the Decomposition Mechanism of Lithium Bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) Salt in the Electrolyte of an Aprotic Li–O2 Battery (pages 348–354)

      Kah Chun Lau, Jun Lu, John Low, Du Peng, Huiming Wu, Hassan M. Albishri, D. Abd Al-Hady, Larry A. Curtiss and Khalil Amine

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300164

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      Boosting your electrolytes: The stability of the lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) salt against lithium peroxide (Li2O2) formation in an aprotic Li–O2 battery is investigated. The lithium oxalate formation reaction seems to be independent of solvents used in the Li–O2 cell, and therefore LiBOB is probably not suitable to be used as the salt in Li–O2 cell electrolytes.

    2. Li2−xFe1−xAlxSiO4/C Nanocomposites Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 355–361)

      Dr. Hai-yan Gao, Dr. Zhe Hu, Dr. Jin-gang Yang and Prof. Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300181

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      An ode to cathodes: Recently, Li2FeSiO4 has been identified as one of the most attractive cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because it has the ability to exchange more than one Li+ per redox-active transition-metal ion. In this article, Li2−xFe1−xAlxSiO4/C nanocomposites are synthesized by using a facile sol–gel method and shown to exhibit much improved electrochemical performance at room temperature.

    3. 3D Architectured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Microbatteries with Large Areal Capacity (pages 362–369)

      Dr. Nicolas Cirigliano, Dr. Guangyi Sun, Daniel Membreno, Dr. Peter Malati, Prof. C. J. Kim and Prof. Bruce Dunn

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402018

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      To the third dimension! The fabrication and properties of battery electrodes comprised of arrays of vertically aligned carbon rods. The electrodes exhibit good reversibility and high areal capacities at relatively large current densities, although the capacity does fade with cycling. The 3D battery designs based on these architectures offer the promise of achieving high energy densities within small footprint areas.

    4. Tin Microspheres Grown on Carbon Cloth as Binder-Free Integrated Anode for High Capacity Lithium Storage (pages 370–375)

      Weifeng Song, Xiaojuan Hou, Xianfu Wang, Bin Liu, Prof. Di Chen and Prof. Guozhen Shen

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300092

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      Batteries made from cloth: High-quality Sn microspheres are grown on carbon cloth, which acts as a binder-free integrated electrode for lithium-ion batteries with greatly improved performance.

    5. Lithium-Ion Battery Performance of (001)-Faceted TiO2 Nanosheets vs. Spherical TiO2 Nanoparticles (pages 376–382)

      Dr. Zhihui Wang, Dr. Yuliang Zhang, Ting Xia, Prof. James Murowchick, Dr. Gao Liu and Prof. Xiaobo Chen

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300140

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      Titania revisted: The influence of surface morphology on the lithium-ion battery performance of TiO2, a safer anode material than graphite, is investigated. It is demonstrated that (001)-faceted TiO2 nanosheets display better electrochemical energy storage performance, higher charge/discharge rates, larger capacity, and improved stability over spherical TiO2 nanoparticles.

    6. Toward General Rules for the Design of Battery Electrodes Based on Titanium Oxides and Free of Conductive Additives (pages 383–390)

      Caleb T. Alexander, Dr. Chunjoong Kim, Riley Yaylian and Dr. Jordi Cabana

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300143

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      Changing the rules: Correlations are established between the mechanism of phase transformation during lithiation and the performance of several titanium oxides as active materials in Li-ion battery electrodes free of any conductive additives to establish rules and engineering pathways for the design of high-energy-density electrodes.

    7. Sol–Gel-Derived Lithium Superionic Conductor Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 Electrolyte for Solid-State Lithium–Oxygen Batteries (pages 391–396)

      Dr. Padmakar D. Kichambare, Thomas Howell and Dr. Stanley Rodrigues

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300139

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      Super results with superionic conductors: All-solid-state lithium–oxygen batteries using ceramic electrolytes are promising high-energy-density electrochemical power sources because of their inherent safety and versatile nature. The high ionic conductivity and electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen-reduction and evolution reactions makes lithium aluminium germanium phosphate (LAGP) a promising electrolyte for such battery configurations.

    8. Design and Fabrication of an All-Solid-State Thin-Film Li-Ion Microbattery with Amorphous TiO2 as the Anode (pages 397–400)

      Jinkui Feng, Binggong Yan, Man O. Lai and Prof. Lu Li

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300173

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      Tuning in to microbatteries: This study describes the fabrication of an all-solid-state thin-film microbattery by using reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering of the positive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (LNMC) electrode at an elevated temperature, amorphous Li3+xPO4−xNx (LiPON) electrolyte at room temperature, and an in situ amorphous TiO2 film below 200 °C. A high capacity is retained for 400 cycles.

    9. Controlled Growth of CoSx Nanostrip Arrays (CoSx-NSA) on Nickel Foam for Asymmetric Supercapacitors (pages 401–408)

      Dr. Deepak P. Dubal, Girish S. Gund, Prof. Chandrakant D. Lokhande and Prof. Rudolf Holze

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300193

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      Hold the foam: A high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitor is reported based on cobalt sulfide nanostrip arrays (CoSx-NSA) as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. The unique hierarchical array of CoSx nanostrips is successfully synthesized using a nickel foam to have a high surface area, high specific capacitance, and excellent cycle stability.

    10. High-Speed Lithium-Ion Transfer inside Mesoporous Core–Shell LiFePO4/Carbon-Sphere Cathodes (pages 409–413)

      Chun-Han Hsu, Hsin-Yi Liao and Prof. Ping-Lin Kuo

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300163

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      Looking beyond the surface: A thin layer of LiFePO4 is coated onto a mesoporous carbon sphere to obtain a mesoporous core–shell LiFePO4/carbon sphere (LFP/MCS) composite. The large surface area of LFP/MCS provides greater surface content between the LiFePO4 shell and electrolytes, which results in a high charge–discharge rate.

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