Energy Technology

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 2, Issue 6

Pages 509–580

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Communications
    5. Full Papers
    6. Book Review
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      Cover Picture: Energy Savings in the Conversion of CO2 to Fuels using an Electrolytic Device (Energy Technol. 6/2014) (page 509)

      Dr. Manuela Bevilacqua, Dr. Jonathan Filippi, Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi, Dr. Andrea Marchionni, Dr. Hamish A. Miller, Dr. Werner Oberhauser, Dr. Erik Vesselli and Dr. Francesco Vizza

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490011

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      CO2 Valuation to Fuels and Chemicals: A key challenge for the valorization of carbon dioxide to fuels and chemicals is represented by the design and the realization of practical electrolyzers, capable of converting CO2 to useful products with a reduced energy consumption and high material stability. The cover image highlights the different working conditions of a traditional—“water-based”—CO2 electrolyzer and the novel depolarized-anode alkaline membrane CO2 electrolyzer (DAAM–CE). The Communication delivered by Manuela Bevilacqua and Francesco Vizza of the Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of the Italian National Research Council (ICCOM-CNR, Florence) and coworkers is presented on page 522 and it demonstrates the great potential of the DAAM–CE device. The key point of this device is the exploitation of the anodic alcohol oxidation instead of water electrolysis to oxygen; in other words, the DAAM–CE device combines the cathodic transformation of CO2 into useful fuels (CH4, C2H4, and HCOO) with the anodic oxidation of ethanol to acetate. At the same time, the presence of ethanol guarantees a working cell potential much lower than existing architectures, leading to a net reduction in energy consumption from 130 kWh to 77 kWh (per kg of hydrocarbon products) with respect to a traditional device. It is noteworthy that the materials in these devices (e.g., membranes and electrocatalysts) show long-term stability under these conditions.

  2. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Communications
    5. Full Papers
    6. Book Review
    1. Graphical Abstract: Energy Technol. 6/2014 (pages 511–514)

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490012

  3. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Communications
    5. Full Papers
    6. Book Review
    1. NiCo2O4 Nanostructures as a Promising Alternative for NiO Photocathodes in p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High Efficiency (pages 517–521)

      Zhiwei Shi, Hao Lu, Qiong Liu, Kaimo Deng, Liangyu Xu, Dr. Rujia Zou, Prof. Junqing Hu, Prof. Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg and Prof. Liang Li

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400013

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      High efficiency: NiCo2O4 nanostructures are utilized as photocathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) designed with a classical I3/I electrolyte and the devices are shown to have a conversion efficiency as high as 0.785 %, which is higher than that of p-DSSCs based on most NiO and other materials.

    2. Energy Savings in the Conversion of CO2 to Fuels using an Electrolytic Device (pages 522–525)

      Dr. Manuela Bevilacqua, Dr. Jonathan Filippi, Dr. Alessandro Lavacchi, Dr. Andrea Marchionni, Dr. Hamish A. Miller, Dr. Werner Oberhauser, Dr. Erik Vesselli and Dr. Francesco Vizza

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402014

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      Converting the masses: This study describes the realization of an electrolyzer for the electroreduction of CO2 to useful hydrocarbons and carboxylates such as CH4, C2H4, and HCOO-. The key advantage of this device is the exploitation of anodic alcohol oxidation instead of water oxidation. The lower operating cell potential due to the presence of ethanol leads to a net reduction in energy consumption in comparison to the cell operating with oxygen evolution.

  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Communications
    5. Full Papers
    6. Book Review
    1. Efficient Ternary CdSSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells based on MgO-coated TiO2 Nanoparticles (pages 526–530)

      Hui Li, Ran Xiao, Zhe Li, Yawen Zhan, Haidong Bian, Biao Nie, Dr. Zhenhua Chen, Prof. Jian Lu and Prof. Yang Yang Li

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400003

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      Building a bridge: The high rate of charge recombination in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) limits their power conversion efficiency. In this study, a new method is introduced to reduce back electron transfer of QDSCs by inserting a thin MgO bridge layer between the TiO2 film and quantum dots.

    2. Estimation of Energy Production of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Modules for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications (pages 531–541)

      Dr. Andrea Reale, Dr. Lucio Cinà, Dr. Ambra Malatesta, Dr. Riccardo De Marco, Prof. Thomas M. Brown and Prof. Aldo Di Carlo

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402005

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      Power up! A model is developed for producible energy evaluation on a generic building-integrated photovoltaic site with dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology using the Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS) database for meteorological data. Average daily irradiation and temperature are considered for the integration of the instantaneous power to obtain the daily energy production.

    3. The Size-Dependent Phase Transition of LiFePO4 Particles during Charging and Discharging in Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 542–547)

      Dr. De Li, Dr. Xizheng Liu and Prof. Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300159

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      Size-dependent models: The size-dependent phase-transition models are established for olivine LiFePO4 according to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The particle-by-particle phase-transition model is adopted for Nano-LiFePO4, which is different from the hybrid model for Micro-LiFePO4. This difference can be interpreted with the size-dependent solubility limit determined by in situ XRD.

    4. Characterization of Toluene Insolubles from Low-Temperature Coal Tar (pages 548–555)

      Dr. Dong Li, Xin Liu, Dr. Zhihui Sun, Panpan Tian and Prof. Wenhong Li

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400007

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      N-solubility: Pyridinic nitrogen (N-6), pyrrolic nitrogen (N-5), quaternary nitrogen (N-Q), and oxidized nitrogen (N-X) are the four forms of nitrogen on the surface of toluene insolubles separated from low-temperature coal tar. These compounds are considered serve as free-radical sources for oxidation-polymerization reactions. They have been identified as strong inhibitors of the hydrotreating reactions or lead to a strong adsorption over the catalysts.

    5. Parametric Simulation of Low-Temperature Heat Recovery using a Rankine Cycle to Drive Multi-effect Distillation (pages 556–562)

      Jianliang Xue, Dongfeng Zhao, Jianguang Chen, Shi Li, Wei Liu and Chanchan Shen

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300191

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      Rankine cycling: This study presents a new concept for low-temperature heat of refinery recovery driving multi-effect distillation (MED). In the study, an optimization method based on the Rankine system is proposed and the thermal modeling is described. Notably, the results indicate that the thermodynamic efficiency with ammonia/water as the working fluid is higher than that with water.

    6. An Empirical Correlation between Char Gasification Reactivity and Its Parent Coal (pages 563–569)

      Dr. Zhijie Zhou, Wei Huo, Shenqi Xu, Prof. Guangsuo Yu and Fuchen Wang

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400010

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      A fitting result: An equation with a dimensionless parameter Rc that is related to the proximate analysis and ash composition of the raw coal is proposed to evaluate gasification. A good agreement of the fitting line and the experimental data shows that the proposed equation is suitable to estimate the reactivity of chars for different types of coals.

    7. The Effect of Nickel and Graphite on the Hydrogen Storage Ability of Magnesium in the First Cycle (pages 570–573)

      Soheila Sohrabi and Dr. Abdullah Irankhah

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402006

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      Milling about: The hydrogen adsorption properties of magnesium by its mechanical milling with nickel and graphite additives are investigated for 35 h under an argon atmosphere. Graphite is shown to have a better effect than nickel on the hydrogen storage properties of magnesium owing to a greater reduction in the particle size of magnesium and the physical adsorption of hydrogen by graphite.

    8. Analytical Expressions of the Concentrations of Substrate, Biomass, and Ethanol for Solid-State Fermentation in Biofuel Production (pages 574–578)

      Ondivillu Mothilal Kirthiga and Dr.  Lakshmanan Rajendran

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400016

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      Beating the reactor drum: Mathematical and kinetic models are discussed for anaerobic solid-state fermentation (SSF) in rotating-drum bioreactors (RDBs). In this study, a simple approximate analytical expression pertaining to the concentration of substrate, biomass, and ethanol is derived in terms of all parameters. These analytical results are found to be in good agreement with numerical solutions (MATLAB/SCILAB) and experimental results.

  5. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Communications
    5. Full Papers
    6. Book Review
    1. Energy Efficiency: Towards the End of Demand Growth. Edited by Fereidoon P. Sioshansi (pages 579–580)

      Prof. Vincenzo G. Dovì

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201405004

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      Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2013, 688 pp., hardcover, €51.95—ISBN 978-0-12-397879-0

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