Energy Technology

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 7

July 2014

Volume 2, Issue 7

Pages 585–660

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Full Papers
    5. Book Review
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: All-Solution-Processed, Ambient Method for ITO-Free, Roll-Coated Tandem Polymer Solar Cells using Solution-Processed Metal Films (Energy Technol. 7/2014) (page 585)

      Dr. Dechan Angmo, Dr. Henrik F. Dam, Dr. Thomas R. Andersen, Natalia K. Zawacka, Dr. Morten V. Madsen, Dr. Jørgen Stubager, Francesco Livi, Dr. Ritu Gupta, Dr. Martin Helgesen, Dr. Jon E. Carlé, Dr. Thue T. Larsen-Olsen, Prof. Giridhar U. Kulkarni, Dr. Eva Bundgaard and Prof. Frederik C. Krebs

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201490013

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      Roll with it: The cover image highlights an ambient slot–die coated Ag film onto which polymer solar cells (PSCs) are fabricated. Three different thicknesses of the same photoactive polymer are coated on the three different Ag stripes. The three stripes appear with three distinct colors due to the reflectivity of the underlying coated Ag film. Metal films bring several advantages including their reflectivity, low sheet resistance, and barrier properties. Until now, however, only evaporated metal films have been successfully utilized as electrode material in organic solar cells. In the Full Paper on page 651 ff., Frederik C. Krebs and colleagues at the Technical University of Denmark demonstrate the application of an ambient slot–die coated Ag film to roll-processing of single- and tandem-junction ITO-free polymer solar cell devices. The slot–die coated Ag electrodes on Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are found to be superior to vapor-deposited silver films in terms of roughness, and superior to comparable ITO films on PET in terms of flexibility. By employing only two simple roll-to-roll compatible processing methods in the fabrication of complete devices, including both electrodes (slot–die coating was used for up to 11 layers and flexo-printing for the last counter electrode), large-area single and tandem devices are demonstrated with fill factors (FF) exceeding 50 % in both types.

  2. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Full Papers
    5. Book Review
  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Full Papers
    5. Book Review
    1. Hydrogen Generation from Hydrolysis of Ball-Milled Al/C Composite Materials: Effects of Processing Parameters (pages 593–597)

      Feng Niu, Xiani Huang, Tong Gao, Dr. Jingang Wang, Dr. Laishun Qin and Dr. Yuexiang Huang

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402009

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      Smaller is better: The evolution of hydrogen by hydrolysis of ball-milled Al/graphite composite materials with water is investigated. Addition of NaCl has favorable effects towards the completeness of the Al hydrolysis reaction with water, particularly at low levels, but deteriorates the Al reactivity owing to the formation of agglomerates during the milling process. Using a fine aluminum powder improves the hydrolysis reactivity and increase the rate of hydrogen generation.

    2. Transformation and Reactivity of a Potassium Catalyst during Coal–Steam Catalytic Pyrolysis and Gasification (pages 598–603)

      Prof. Xingjun Wang, Huaili Zhu, Ximin Wang, Prof. Haifeng Liu, Prof. Fuchen Wang and Prof. Guangsuo Yu

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402003

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      Potassium in disguise: The transformation of potassium catalyst during coal pyrolysis and steam gasification is studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The gasification residues were obtained by leaching in the water and drying in an oven. The results show that potassium aluminum silicate crystallites are derived from the interaction of potassium with mineral matter.

    3. Triplet Sensitizer Modification of Poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) for Increased Efficiency in Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices (pages 604–611)

      Punnamchandar Ramidi, Omar Abdulrazzaq, Charlette M. Felton, Dr. Yashraj Gartia, Dr. Viney Saini, Dr. Alexandru S. Biris and Dr. Anindya Ghosh

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402008

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      Sensitivity training: The successful synthesis of a modified poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) donor polymer with benzophenone (P3HTB) substitution is presented for the fabrication of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The addition of aromatic ketone modified P3HT in small amount in the active layer of bulkheterojunction solar cells significantly increases the power conversion efficiency.

    4. Scaling and Learning Effects of Biofuels Conversion Technologies (pages 612–617)

      Dr. Gunter Festel, Martin Würmseher and Dr. Christian Rammer

      Version of Record online: 27 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400014

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      The scale makes the difference! Based on simulation analysis, this article shows that the conversion costs of biofuels can be primarily reduced by scale effects associated with the production plant size. In contrast, learning curve effects have only a minor impact, particularly after the technological progress from the initial phase has been exploited.

    5. Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsions for the Petroleum Industry by using Alternating Copolymers (pages 618–624)

      Chuanyu Yan, Jin Han, Chengyi Huang and Prof. Dr. Tiancheng Mu

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201400012

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      Oil and water do mix: A new class of hydrophilic-alternating-lipophilic copolymers is synthesized from which the polymers are more efficient than the existing demulsifiers for the chemical destabilization of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, important for the petroleum industry. A mechanism for demulsification is proposed, which was based on the interfacial behavior of these copolymers.

    6. A High-Performance Microbial Battery Based on the Chemotactic Biofilm of a Motile Microaerophilic Bacterium (pages 625–633)

      Dr. Meera Parthasarathy, Anantha Narayanan, Siddarth Narasimhan, Sruthi Ann Alex, Vivek Ogirala and Viveka Kalidasan

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201300190

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      Bacterial power! Chemotaxis is the migratory behavior of motile bacteria towards nutrients, and the immobilization of nutrient molecules on an anode surface allows for bacterial biofilm formation by the chemotactic mechanism, which is shown to deliver high electric power in a sandwich type bio-battery. The results of the study could be used to design miniature microbial batteries for portable applications as well as to improve the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    7. Rheological, Thermal, and Physicochemical Characterization of Animal Fat Wastes for use in Biodiesel Production (pages 634–642)

      Peter Adewale, Dr. Marie-Josée Dumont and Dr. Michael Ngadi

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402001

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      Cutting the fat: In this study, the physicochemical properties of animal fat waste samples (tallow, lard, choice white grease, and yellow grease) and the correlation of these properties to their thermal and rheological behaviors are elucidated, which is important for the optimization of biodiesel production from such wastes. It is established that the presence of impurities and FFA content had important effects on the rheological and thermal properties of fats.

    8. Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Wide Temperature Range Operability Enabled by Highly Conductive sp3 Boron-Based Single Ion Polymer Electrolytes (pages 643–650)

      Dr. Yunfeng Zhang, Dr. Yubao Sun, Guodong Xu, Dr. Weiwei Cai, Rupesh Rohan, Prof. An Lin and Prof. Hansong Cheng

      Version of Record online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402010

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      Do heated batteries explode? The excellent operability of Li-ion batteries equipped with selected sp3 boron-based gel single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes (SIPEs) is reported in the broad temperature range of 25–100 °C. The high performance of the batteries is attributed to the high ionic conductivity of the SIPEs, superior interfacial contact between the SIPE membranes and the electrodes, and mesopore sizes of the membranes being suitable for ion transport.

    9. All-Solution-Processed, Ambient Method for ITO-Free, Roll-Coated Tandem Polymer Solar Cells using Solution-Processed Metal Films (pages 651–659)

      Dr. Dechan Angmo, Dr. Henrik F. Dam, Dr. Thomas R. Andersen, Natalia K. Zawacka, Dr. Morten V. Madsen, Dr. Jørgen Stubager, Francesco Livi, Dr. Ritu Gupta, Dr. Martin Helgesen, Dr. Jon E. Carlé, Dr. Thue T. Larsen-Olsen, Prof. Giridhar U. Kulkarni, Dr. Eva Bundgaard and Prof. Frederik C. Krebs

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402012

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      Let it Roll: The photograph shows three different thicknesses of the same polymer coated on three different Ag stripes. They appear with three distinct colors due to the reflectivity of the underlying coated Ag film. It is demonstrated how this ambient, solution-processed, roll-coated Ag film can be applied to fully solution-processed polymer solar cells (including the electrodes).

  4. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Full Papers
    5. Book Review
    1. Essentials of Energy Technology: Sources, Transport, Storage, Conservation. By Jochen Fricke and Walter L. Borst (page 660)

      Prof.  Vaclav Smil

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ente.201405005

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      Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2013, 443 pp., softcover, €69.00, US $95.00, ISBN 978-3-527-33416-2

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