Input–output energy analysis in pistachio production of Turkey

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The purpose of this study is to determine the energy consumption of input and output used in pistachio production in Turkey. Data were collected from 147 pistachio farms in Gaziantep, Turkey by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The sample farms were selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The population investigated was divided into two strata based on the size of pistachio farms as 0.1–10.0 ha (98 farms) and larger than 10.1 ha (49 farms). The results revealed that 23,454.33 MJ ha−1 energy were consumed by first group and 20,473.06 MJ ha−1 second group of farms. The input–output ratio was 0.40 in the first stratum and 0.43 in the second stratum. The energy productivity was 0.02 for both groups of farm. The economic analyses showed that the profit–cost ratios of farms were 1.52 and 1.69, respectively. Net returns calculated were 1429.10 $ ha−1 and 1595.11 $ ha−1 in the farms investigated. Large farms were more successful in use efficiency and economic performance. It was concluded that energy management at farm level could be improved to provide more efficient and economic use of energy. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 128–133, 2013.