Treatment of different wastewater using macrophytes-vegetated constructed wetland reveals its potential in terms of significant reduction in BOD, COD, suspended solids, total solids, total nitrogen, heavy metals along with remediation of xenobiotics, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The rhizosphere of macrophytes such as Phragmites, Typha, Juncus, Spartina and Scirpus serves as an active and dynamic zone for the microbial degradation of organic and sequestration of inorganic pollutant resulting in successful treatment of domestic, textile and other effluents. Up to 2049–6648 µg metal per gram dry weight of plant biomass are found to accumulate in plant parts i.e. shoots and roots. Major metal removal mechanisms are bioaccumulation in plant parts, phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Different wastewaters treated through this technology are industrial, domestic, dairy, pesticides, PAHs, and xenobiotics containing effluents. Loading limits of the wetland, removal efficiency, biomass disposal and variation in seasonal growth are some of the limiting factors which can be overcome by stimulating the plant microbe interaction through designer rhizospheres involving pigmentation, biostimulation and genetic alterations of plant and associated microbial community. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 9–27, 2014
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