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Remediation of NORM and TENORM contaminated sites—Review article



Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) present in many natural resources, human activities that exploit these resources enhance the concentrations, solubility, and subsequently the exposure to these materials. NORM and Technically Enhanced NORM (TENORM) dispersion in soil, groundwater, and surface water has induced different contamination problems. Dealing with such problems differs from site to site depending on the associated risk. The development of green and sustainable remediation project aims to restore the contaminated sites to productive use and conserves undeveloped areas, minimize or eliminate the pollution source, reduce waste generation, and reduce the associated costs. This work is intended to highlight recent advances in remediation activities for NORM contaminated sites. The main aim is to identify difficulties that affect the application of different remediation technology. This will be achieved by reviewing advances in regulating NORM and TENORM, and site contamination assessment. Then different remediation technologies, their applicability and factors that affect the efficiency of the remediation process will be identified. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 588–596, 2014