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Optimization of the process parameters for the removal of reactive yellow dye by the low cost Setaria verticillata carbon using response surface methodology: Thermodynamic, kinetic, and equilibrium studies


  • This article was published online on 18 September 2013. An error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 23 October 2013.


A low cost adsorbent prepared from material of biological origin Setaria verticillata (Grasses) has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Reactive Yellow 15 (RY15) dye from an aqueous solution. The combined effect of the initial pH, adsorbent dose, and initial dye concentration was investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The most influential adsorption factor on each adsorption experimental design response was identified from the Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). The experimental values of percentage removal were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. pH value of 2, initial RY15 concentration of 50 mg L−1 and adsorbent dose of 50 mg are found to be the optimum conditions, for adsorption of RY15 from an aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters such as change in standard free energy change, enthalpy and entropy ΔGo, ΔHo, and ΔSo have been evaluated, and it has been found that the adsorption process is feasible, exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Temkin adsorption isotherms. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of the RY15 dye is found to be 138.6 mg g−1. The experimental data fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 855–865, 2014

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