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LITERATURE CITED

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    Vyas, A.P., Verma, J.L., & Subrahmanyam, N. (2010). A review on FAME production processes, Fuel, 89, 19.
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    Issariyakul, T., Kulkarni, M.G., Meher, L.C., Dalai, A.K., & Bakhshi, N.N. (2008). Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil, Chemical Engineering Journal, 140, 7785.
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    Mohamedmusthafa, M., Sivapirakasam, S.P., Udayakumar, M., & Balasubramanian, K.R. (2012). Effects of Al2O3 coating on diesel engine performance, combustion, and emission characteristics fueled by Pongamia methyl ester and its blends with diesel, Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 31, 147156.
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    Koberg, M., & Gedanken, A. (2012). Direct transesterification of castor and jatropha seeds for FAME production by microwave and ultrasound radiation using a SrO catalyst, Bioenergy Research, 5, 958968.
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    Math, M.C., PremKumar, S., & Chetty, S.V. (2010). Technologies for biodiesel production from used cooking oil—A review, Energy for Sustainable Development, 14, 339345.
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    Leung, D.Y.C., & Guo, Y. (2006). Transesterification of neat and used frying oil: Optimization for biodiesel production, Fuel Processing Technology, 8, 883890.
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    Reddy, C.R.V., Oshel, R., & Verkade, J.G. (2006). Room-temperature conversion of soybean oil and poultry fat to biodiesel catalyzed by nanocrystalline calcium oxides, Energy Fuels, 20, 13101314.
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    Tanawannapong,Y., Kaewchada, A., & Jaree, A. (2013). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a microtube reactor, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19, 3741.
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    Helwani, Z., Othman, M.R., Aziz, N., Kim, J., & Fernando, W.J.N. (2009) Solid heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides with methanol: A review, Applied Catalysis A, 363, 110.
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    Endalew, A.K., Kiros, Y., & Zanzi, R. (2011). Inorganic heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils, Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 37873809.
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    Kawashima, A., Matsubara, K., & Honda, K. (2009). Acceleration of catalytic activity of calcium oxide for biodiesel production, Bioresource Technology, 100, 696700.
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    Feng, Y., Zhang, A., Li, J., & He, B. (2011). A continuous process for biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst, Bioresource Technology, 102, 36073609.
  • 14
    Xie, W., Peng, H., & Chen, L. (2006). Calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts for methanolysis of soybean oil, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, 246, 2432.
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    Suppes, G.J., Dasari, M.A., Doskocil, E.J., Mankidy, P.J., & Goff, M.J. (2004). Transesterification of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts, Applied Catalysis A, 257, 213223.
  • 16
    Liu, X., He, H., Wang, Y., Zhu, S., & Piao, X. (2008). Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst, Fuel, 87, 216221.
  • 17
    Yan, S., Lu, H., & Liang, B. (2008). Supported CaO catalysts used in the transesterification of rapeseed oil for the purpose of biodiesel production, Energy and Fuel, 22, 646651.
  • 18
    Boey, P.-L., Maniam, G.P., & Hamid, S.A. (2011). Performance of calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production: A review, Chemical Engineering Journal, 168, 1522.
  • 19
    Girish, N., Niju, S., Meera S. Begum, K.M., & Anantharaman, N. (2013). Utilization of a cost effective solid catalyst derived from natural white bivalve clam shell for transesterification of waste frying oil, Fuel, 111, 653658.
  • 20
    Suryaputra, W., Winata, I., Indraswati, N., & Ismadji, S. (2013). Waste capiz (Amusium cristatum) shell as a new heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production, Renewable Energy, 50, 795799.
  • 21
    Rezaei, R., Mohadesi, M., & Moradi, G.R. (2013). Optimization of biodiesel production using waste mussel shell catalyst, Fuel, 109, 534541.
  • 22
    Boro, J., Thakur, A.J., & Deka, D. (2011). Solid oxide derived from waste shells of Turbonilla striatula as a renewable catalyst for biodiesel production, Fuel Processing Technology, 92, 20612067.
  • 23
    Kheang, L.S., Subari, F., & Kadir, S.A.S.A. (2011). Pre-treatment of palm olein-derived used frying oil as a feedstock for non-food applications, Journal of Oil Palm Research, 23, 11851192.
  • 24
    Verziu, M., Coman, S.M., Richards, R., & Parvulescu, V.I. (2011). Transesterification of vegetable oils over CaO catalysts, Catalysis Today, 167, 6470.
  • 25
    Rivera, E.M., Araiza, M., Brostow, W., Castano, V.M., Dias-Estrada, J.R., Hernandez, R., & Rodriguez, J.R. (1999). Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from eggshells, Materials Letters, 41, 128134.
  • 26
    Engin, B., Demirtas, H., & Eken, M. (2006). Temperature effects on egg shells investigated by XRD, IR and ESR techniques, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 75, 268277.
  • 27
    Kumar, D., & Ali, A. (2012). Nanocrystalline K–CaO for the transesterification of a variety of feedstocks: Structure, kinetics and catalytic properties, Biomass and Bioenergy, 46, 459468.
  • 28
    Vujicic, D.J., Comic, D., Zarubica, A., Micic, R., & Boskovic, G. (2010). Kinetics of biodiesel synthesis from sunflower oil over CaO heterogeneous catalyst, Fuel, 89, 20542061.
  • 29
    Liu, X., Xiong, X., Liu, C., Liu, D., Wu, A., Hu, Q., & Liu, C. (2010). Preparation of biodiesel by transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol using solid base catalyst calcined K2CO3/Al2O3, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 87, 817823.
  • 30
    Teng, G., Gao, L., Xiao, G., Liu, H., & Lv, J. (2010). Biodiesel preparation from Jatropha curcas oil catalysed by hydrotalcite loaded with K2CO3, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 10, 89538959.
  • 31
    Tang, Y., Meng, M., Zhang, J., & Lu, Y. (2011). Efficient preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed oil over modified CaO, Applied Energy, 88, 27352739.
  • 32
    Qiu, F., Li, Y., Yang, D., Li, X., & Sun, P. (2011). Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil, Applied Energy, 88, 20502055.
  • 33
    Knothe, G. (2001). Determining the blend level of mixtures of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel by fiber optic NIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 78, 10251028.
  • 34
    Monteiro, M.R., Ambrozin, A.R.P., Liao, L.M., & Ferreira, A.G. (2009). Determination of biodiesel blend levels in different diesel samples by 1H NMR, Fuel, 88, 691696.