Building structures damaged by a seismic event may be exposed to the risk of aftershocks or another event within a certain period. In this paper, the seismic assessment of damaged piloti-type RC buildings was carried out to evaluate probabilistic retrofitting effects under successive earthquakes. First, a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of retrofitting was proposed, and then the proposed methodology was demonstrated with a structure retrofitted with buckling-restrained braces (BRBs). For consideration of realistic successive earthquakes, past records measured at the same station were combined. Within the framework, a series of nonlinear time history analyses were performed for an as-is model subjected to single earthquake, a damaged model subjected to successive earthquakes, and a damaged model retrofitted with BRBs subjected to successive earthquakes. In addition, fragility analysis was systematically applied in the framework for evaluation of effectiveness of the retrofitting strategy. The proposed framework was capable of quantifying the influence of successive earthquakes and evaluating the effectiveness of BRB retrofitting by considering the severity of the first earthquake damage and the hysteresis behavior of the retrofit element. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.