Amplification factors for inelastic dynamic p–Δ effects in earthquake analysis
Article first published online: 18 DEC 2006
Copyright © 1987 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics
Volume 15, Issue 5, pages 635–651, July 1987
How to Cite
Bernal, D. (1987), Amplification factors for inelastic dynamic p–Δ effects in earthquake analysis. Earthquake Engng. Struct. Dyn., 15: 635–651. doi: 10.1002/eqe.4290150508
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2006
- Article first published online: 18 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 23 OCT 1986
- Manuscript Received: 20 FEB 1986
In the present study, the question of inelastic p–Δ effects is examined from the perspective of inelastic spectral ordinates. Inelastic acceleration response spectra are generated using a model which includes the effects of gravity; for each spectrum the ductility factor and the gravity load level (characterized by the stability coefficient) are held constant. Amplification spectra are generated by taking the ratio between spectra with and without gravity effects. The results are analysed statistically and a formula for the amplification factor as a function of the relevant parameters is obtained. Special care is taken to present a formulation that is simple and useful in the context of practical earthquake engineering design.
Some currently used p–Δ amplification factors are discussed in the light of the results obtained.