This article was to be part of the Special Issue—Electrical Energy storage for future Transportation and Renewable Energy. Guest Edited by Kandler Smith and Chao-Yang Wang.
Tin-based materials as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries: Combinatorial approaches and mechanical methods†
Article first published online: 14 JAN 2010
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Energy Research
Volume 34, Issue 6, pages 535–555, May 2010
How to Cite
Todd, A. D. W., Ferguson, P. P., Fleischauer, M. D. and Dahn, J. R. (2010), Tin-based materials as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries: Combinatorial approaches and mechanical methods. Int. J. Energy Res., 34: 535–555. doi: 10.1002/er.1669
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 14 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Received: 8 OCT 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 OCT 2009
- 3M Canada Co
- lithium ion battery;
- negative electrode;
- combinatorial materials science;
- mechanically alloying
Graphite has been used as the negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries for more than a decade. To attain higher energy density batteries, silicon and tin, which can alloy reversibly with lithium, have been considered as a replacement for graphite. However, the volume expansion of these metal elements upon lithiation can result in poor capacity retention. Alloying the active metal element with an inactive material can limit the overall volume expansion and improve cycle life. This paper presents a summary of tin-based materials as negative electrodes. After reviewing attempts to improve and understand the electrochemical behaviour of metallic tin and its oxides, the focus turns to alloys of tin with a transition metal (TM) and, optionally, carbon. To do so, a combinatorial sputtering technique was used to simultaneously prepare many different compositions of Sn-TM-based materials. The structural and electrochemical results of these samples are presented and they show that cobalt is the preferred TM to give optimal performance. Finally, a comparison of a Sn–Co–C negative electrode material prepared by a rapid quenching method (sputtering) with a material prepared by an economical milling method (mechanical attrition) is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.