• green nanotechnology;
  • future energy;
  • fuel cell;
  • solar cell;
  • biotechnology;
  • biofuel


It is well known that current fossil fuel usage is unsustainable and associated with greenhouse gas production. The amount of the world's primary energy supply provided by renewable energy technologies is urgently required. Therefore, the relevant technologies such as hydrogen fuel, solar cell, biotechnology based on nanotechnology, and the relevant patents for exploiting the future energy for the friendly environment are reviewed. At the same time, it is pointed out that the significantly feasible world's eco-energy for the foreseeable future should not only be realized, but also methods for using the current energy and their by-products more efficiently should be found correspondingly, alongside technologies that will ensure minimal environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.