• electric vehicles;
  • FEM;
  • Li ion;
  • temperature


The thermal behavior of a Li-ion battery module that belongs to the battery system of an actual electric vehicle prototype was numerically investigated. Realistic driving loads and passive cooling conditions were considered. A combination of a vehicle dynamics model, an equivalent electric circuit battery model, and a 3D finite-element thermal model was used in the analysis. Temperature and electric potential measurements, performed at the cell and module levels, were first used for model calibration. Electric currents, associated with the ARTEMIS driving cycles, were then calculated and applied in the battery model to predict the heat sources for the thermal model. It was found that the temperature increase corresponding to urban transportation requirements in European countries is tolerable. Nevertheless, road and highway applications would result in a temperature increase that accelerates cell ageing, and an active cooling strategy is required. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.