In this study, the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is investigated, and a fuel cell operating with acidic peroxide as oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide as fuel is constructed. A stable solid state H2S/H2O2 fuel cell has been developed at the temperature of 298 K. A nickel anode catalyst has been examined using Nafion-117 as a proton-conducting membrane. In an operating with the acidic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, the cell potential was increased to a value of 0.85 V at 298 K. The main conclusion of this study is the management to increase the cell potential to 850 mV at 25 °C, whereas this value can only be achieved in the H2S/O2 fuel cell at 850–1000 °C. Moreover, there exists no prior work on the H2S/H2O2 fuel cell research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.