Global energy shortages and environmental pollution have led to a crisis affecting human survival and development. There has been a recent increase in the amount of research focused on the use of waste materials as an inexpensive and abundant source of renewable energy . This great concern has caused the advancement of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). MFC is a type of fuel cell that uses bacteria as a biocatalyst, to oxidize organic and inorganic matter to produce electricity [2, 3]. MFC is able to simultaneously produce electricity and treat wastewater. A typical MFC consists of two chambers (anode and cathode) that are separated by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) . The performance of an MFC is dependent on several factors, including the microorganism used as a biocatalyst, the cathode catalyst, the distance between the cathode and the anode, the type of PEM used, etc. [5, 6]. However, the main problem that limits the practical application of MFC is the high cost of Pt, which is used as a cathode catalyst. Therefore, finding or developing an alternative catalyst to Pt is necessary to make MFC more practical . The structure of the supporting materials can also affect the performance of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as the catalyst. Vanadium is one of the most abundant metals on Earth (widely distributed within the Earth's crust) . Both the pure and composite forms of vanadium are used in many chemical reactions as a catalyst to obtain promising yields and reduce environmental problems . Vanadium has a wide range of applications, including steel additives, batteries, catalysts, etc. [10, 11]. Vanadium's active sites have an important role in its catalytic activity. However, their nature is still not fully understood [12-14]. There are different types of vanadium oxides, which are composed of single and mixed valence states, as well as different structures . However, their compositional stability, phase co-existence, and transformation to different states of vanadium multivalent vanadium are still unclear [16-18]. Meanwhile, interest in the development of conducting polymers as nanocomposites has dramatically increased. This is due to their attractive properties, such as physical and chemical stability, high conductivity, biocompatibility, etc. . Conducting polymer/metal nanocomposites show higher conductivity and stability, compared to polymers, which exhibit limited conductivity and lower stability in ultraviolet irradiation, heat, and other environmental conditions. Furthermore, metal nanoparticle-conducting polymer composites offer appropriate catalysis properties, with a high selectivity in chemical reactions, as the polymer effectively influences controlling the surrounding metal . Polyaniline (Pani)-supported Pd nanoparticles have been applied in the oxidation coupling of the 2, 6-di-t-butyl phenol . Pt/Pani and PtO2/Pani have been used for the selective hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated aldehyde citral. PtO2/Pani produced a highly dispersed supported catalyst, which was able to hydrogenate the C=C bond of citral, whereas Pani-supported Pt exhibited more selectivity to the reduction of the carbonyl groups . The catalytic activity of Pani-supported cobalt has been examined in trans-stilbene oxidation. The nanocomposite catalyst indicates a significant improvement in the reaction yield under mild conditions [20-23]. In a recent study, Qiao et al. synthesized Carbon Nano Tube/Pani nanocomposite for use as an electrode within an MFC system. They found that the performance of the composite was superior to that of neat Pani and the composite was able to produce more power than Pani . In this research, we synthesized Pani and Pani/V2O5 nanocomposite catalysts using micelle technique and investigated their application in the MFC, to see whether the composite could be used as a cathode catalyst in MFC. Moreover, these results were compared to the performance of Pt, as it is the most commonly used cathode catalyst in MFCs.