International Journal of Energy Research

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 3

10 March 2014

Volume 38, Issue 3

Pages 277–414

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    1. Investigation of the temperature-related performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks in the presence of CO (pages 277–284)

      Hao Zhang, Daijun Yang, Bing Li, Zheng Qian and Jianxin Ma

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3028

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      The CO tolerance of anode catalysts is improved at elevated operating temperatures, and the unit cells which adopt Ir–V/C as anode catalyst demonstrate superior performance compared with those with Pt/C catalyst at 95 °C in the presence of 5 ppm CO/H2.

    2. Sustainability with prospective refrigerants (pages 285–298)

      A. Cavallini, C. Zilio and J. S. Brown

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3035

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      1. An historical summary of the past/current status of refrigerants is presented.
      2. Second Law-based approach to estimate a refrigerant's performance potential is presented.
      3. Ranking methodologies for the exergy losses in the compressor and condenser are presented.
      4. The Second Law-based methodologies are applied to several refrigerants (‘natural’, ‘traditional synthetic’, HFOs).
    3. Modeling of fixed bed downdraft biomass gasification: Application on lab-scale and industrial reactors (pages 319–338)

      Juan F. Pérez, Andrés Melgar and Francisco V. Tinaut

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3045

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      The model developed agrees with the experiments under steady and unsteady conditions. The model is very sensitive to the kinetic of reaction rates. The unsteady model allows analyzing alternatives for process optimization. The steady-state simulation allows optimizing the gasifiers design.

    4. Short-term load forecasting based on support vector regression and load profiling (pages 350–362)

      João C. Sousa, Humberto M. Jorge and Luís P. Neves

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3048

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      • Support vector machines are applied to load forecasting purposes, integrating information derived from load profiling.
      • Simulated annealing is used to identify the support vector machine parameters.
      • A feature selection stage was performed to retain the most relevant inputs.
    5. Design of an energy hub based on natural gas and renewable energy sources (pages 363–373)

      Abduslam Sharif, Ali Almansoori, Michael Fowler, Ali Elkamel and Kamal Alrafea

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3050

    6. Enhancement of methane hydrate formation using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (pages 374–379)

      Sang-Hoon Lim, Saffa B. Riffat, Sung-Seek Park, Seung-Jin Oh, Wongee Chun and Nam-Jin Kim

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3051

    7. Analysis of load-following characteristics for an integrated pressurized water reactor (pages 380–390)

      Xia Genglei, Peng Minjun and Du Xue

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3053

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      The mathematical model of an integrated reactor plant is developed to test the capability of reactor power control system for the rapid load-following characteristics using RELAP5 procedure. Simulation results of the control system demonstrate its capability in regulating the reactor power to match with the feed water flow rate automatically. According to the results, the OTSG grouping run strategy is optimized to ensure the safe operation of IPWR under low load conditions.

    8. 3D numerical investigation of ZnO/Zn hydrolysis for hydrogen production (pages 391–403)

      Furqan Ahmad Khan and Kamran Siddiqui

      Version of Record online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3054

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      The study presents 3D numerical modeling of ZnO/Zn hydrolysis step in a reactor. It proposes an improved reactor design by investigating the effect of different parameters and reactor configurations on hydrogen yield. It also discusses how flow velocity, temperature distribution, and Zinc particle residence time influence hydrogen yield. The figure shows contours of hydrogen gas concentration (kmol/m3) inside different reactor configurations.

    9. Effectiveness of smart charging of electric vehicles under power limitations (pages 404–414)

      Juuso Lindgren, Rami Niemi and Peter D. Lund

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/er.3130

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      The effectiveness of electric vehicle battery charging strategies under power limitations was investigated by constraining the available charging power for groups of plugged-in vehicles. Power to vehicles was allocated based on vehicle-specific parameters such as the state-of-charge. The results show that only modest increases in total electric mileage were achieved through smart charging strategies. This indicates that large electric vehicle fleets could be incorporated to, e.g. smart-grid schemes.