Direct observation of frost wedging in alpine bedrock



Width and temperature of rock joints were automatically monitored in the Japanese Alps. Three years of monitoring on a sandstone rock face shows two seasonal peaks of joint widening in autumn and spring. The autumn events are associated with short-term freeze–thaw cycles, and the magnitude of widening reflects the freezing intensity and water availability. The short-term freezing can produce wedging to a depth of at least 20 cm. The spring events follow a rise in the rock surface temperature to 0 °C beneath the seasonal snowcover, and likely originate from refreezing of meltwater entering the joint. Some of these events contribute to permanent enlargement of the joint. Two other joints on nearby rock faces experience only sporadic widening accompanying freeze–thaw cycles and insignificant permanent enlargement. Observations indicate that no single thermal criterion can explain frost weathering. The temperature range at which wedging occurs varies with the bedrock conditions, water availability and duration of freezing. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.