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Leaching potential of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in soils

Authors

  • Jian Xu,

    Corresponding author
    1. River, Estuarine and Coastal Environmental Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China
    2. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    • River, Estuarine and Coastal Environmental Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China.
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  • Laosheng Wu,

    1. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
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  • Weiping Chen,

    1. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    2. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 China
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  • Andrew C. Chang

    1. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
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Abstract

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in soils resulting from application of municipal wastewater or biosolids may migrate through soils intact or be transformed and reach groundwater. In the present study, the leaching potential of four NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac sodium) in three U.S. cropland soils was evaluated, and the effect of CaCl2 solution (as an index of salinity), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and polyacrylamide (PAM) amendment was investigated. The soils were spiked with selected NSAIDs, incubated for 24 h followed by 7-d storage in glass flasks, and then packed into stainless steel columns and leached with deionized water (DIW), 10 mM CaCl2, DOM (DOC 34 mg/L), and PAM solution (1.0 mg/L) by gravity. Initial concentrations of ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac sodium in the three packed soils were 1.93 to 2.07, 1.74 to 2.27, 1.79 to 2.16, and 1.99 to 2.13 mg/kg, respectively. Maximum concentrations of the above NSAIDs in column effluents were 1.23, 0.92, 0.69, and 1.12 mg/L, respectively, when the soil was leached with 10 pore volumes of water, which occupied 17.4, 11.1, 9.6, and 15.2% of the total chemicals in each soil column. Dissolved organic matter or PAM solution did not facilitate the NSAIDs release from soils. The CaCl2 solution, however, reduced the amounts of NSAIDs leached from all three soils. Leaching of NSAIDs differed among the three tested soils. The results suggest that the leaching of NSAIDs through soil to water is significant, and the mobility of NSAIDs in soil is related to their chemicals' characteristics (such as pKa values) and soil properties (such as soil organic matter and clay content). Amending soil with DOM or PAM does not significantly affect the leaching behavior of NSAIDs in soil, whereas increasing the salinity of the irrigation water may decrease the extent of contamination of groundwater posed by NSAIDs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:800–807. © 2009 SETAC

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