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Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply

Authors

  • Lixian Yao,

    Corresponding author
    1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
    • Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China.
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  • Guoliang Li,

    1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
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  • Zhi Dang,

    1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006, People's Republic of China
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  • Baomei Yang,

    1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
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  • Zhaohuan He,

    1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
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  • Changmin Zhou

    1. Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nutrient Cycling and Farmland Conservation, Guangzhou 510640, People's Republic of China
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Abstract

Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 g PO4/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:947–951. © 2009 SETAC

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