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Acute and chronic toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 to Tigriopus japonicus: Effects on survival, growth, reproduction, and intrinsic rate of population growth

Authors

  • Feng Guo,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
    • State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
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  • Lei Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
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  • Wen-Xiong Wang

    1. State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
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Abstract

The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus has a wide geographical distribution and is considered as a suitable model species for the assessment of toxicity of marine pollutants. The aim of the present study was to test the impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the growth, development, and reproduction of T. japonicus in two successive generations. We first quantified the 96-h 50% lethal concentration (2.83 mg/L; all reported concentrations are nominal values), the no-observed-effect concentration (0.6 mg/L), and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC; 1.2 mg/L) of PCB126 in the nauplii. Nauplii were more sensitive than the adults, which still survived at the highest tested PCB126 concentration (8 mg/L). In the chronic toxicity testing, 10 life history traits were quantified for T. japonicus. No obvious effect on any of these traits was observed in the first generation (F0) at tested concentrations (<100 µg/L) lower than the LOEC. During the second generational life-cycle exposure (F1), however, PCB126 had an obvious toxic effect on the reproduction (>1 µg/L) and growth (>0.1 µg/L). Thus, copepods became more sensitive to PCB126 exposure as generations developed. Among the different traits tested, body size was the most sensitive parameter. Reproduction (fecundity, number of clutches, nauplii/clutch) and intrinsic population growth were also significantly impacted by PCB exposure. The survivorship, sex ratio, hatching time, and development were not affected. Environmental risk assessment of contaminants must therefore be based on a long-term multigenerational exposure to provide a realistic measurement of the influences of pollutants on aquatic life. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:639–645. © 2011 SETAC

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