• 1
    Leader B, Baca QJ, Golan DE. 2008. Protein therapeutics: A summary and pharmacological classification. Nature Rev Drug Disc 7: 2139.
  • 2
    Straub JO. 2010. Protein and peptide therapeuticals: An example of “benign by nature” active pharmaceutical ingredients. In Kümmerer K, Hempel M, eds, Green and Sustainable Pharmacy. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp 127134.
  • 3
    European Agency for the Evaluation of Medical Products. 2006. Note for guidance on environmental risk assessment of medicinal products for human use. CPMP/SWP/4447/00. European Agency for the Evaluation of Medical Products, London, UK.
  • 4
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2011. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. OECD, Paris, France.
  • 5
    International Standardization Organization (ISO). 2006. International Organization for Standardization: Water Quality–Toxicity Test for Assessing the Inhibition of Nitrification of Activated Sludge Micro-Organisms, 2nd ed. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 6
    Hutchinson TH, Barrett S, Buzby M, Constable D, Hartmann A, Hayes E, Huggett D, Länge R, Lillicrap AD, Straub JO, Thompson RS. 2003. A strategy to reduce the numbers of fish used in acute ecotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals. Environ Toxicol Chem 22: 30313036.
  • 7
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre. 2003. European Commission. Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment in Support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on Risk Assessment for New Notified Substances, Commission Regulation (EC) 1488/94 on Risk Assessment for Existing Substances and Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Placing of Biocidal Products on the Market. European Chemicals Bureau, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy.
  • 8
    Hoerger CC, Dörr B, Schlienger C, Straub JO. 2009. Environmental risk assessment for the galenical formulation of solid medicinal products at Roche Basle, Switzerland. Integr Environ Assess Manag 5: 331337.
  • 9
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre. 2004. Summary Risk Assessment Report Edetic Acid (EDTA), CAS: 60-00-4 EINECS: 200-449-4. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.
  • 10
    Gartiser S, Urich E, Alexy R, Kümmerer K. 2007. Ultimate biodegradation and elimination of antibiotics in inherent tests. Chemosphere 67: 604613.
  • 11
    Alexy R, Kümpel T, Kümmerer K. 2004. Assessment of degradation of 18 antibiotics in the closed bottle test. Chemosphere 57: 505512.
  • 12
    van Ginkel CG, Stroo CA. 1992. Simple method to prolong the closed bottle test for the determination of the inherent biodegradability. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 24: 319327.
  • 13
    Henneken L, Nörtemann B, Hempel DC. 1995. Influence of physiological conditions on EDTA degradation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 44: 109197.
  • 14
    Kaluza U, Klingelhöfer P, Taeger K. 1998. Microbial degradation of EDTA in an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Water Res 32: 28432845.
  • 15
    Raschig GmbH. 2005. Sicherheitsdatenblatt MOPS-Na, 02.12.2005. Raschig GmbH, Ludwigshafen, Germany.
  • 16
    Analytyka. 2008. MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet, PIPES (1,4-Piperazinebis(ethanesulfonic acid)) 98.5+%. Analytyka, Escobedo, Mexico.
  • 17
    Kortenkamp A, Backhaus T, Faust M. 2009. State of the art report on mixture toxicity. Report for Directorate General for the Environment of the European Commission. European Commission, Luxembourg.
  • 18
    Moffat AC. Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, 4th ed. Pharmaceutical Press, New York, NY, USA.