• 1
    Kah M, Beulke S, Brown CD. 2007. Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil. J Agric Food Chem 55: 44874492.
  • 2
    Helling CS, Kearney PC, Alexander M. 1971. Behavior of pesticides in soils. Adv Agron 23: 147239.
  • 3
    Cheng HH. 1990. Pesticides in the Soil Environment: Processes, Impacts and Modeling. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
  • 4
    Wauchope RD, Yeh S, Linders JBHJ, Kloskowski R, Tanaka K, Rubin B, Katayama A, Kördel W, Gerstl Z, Lane M, Unsworth JB. 2002. Review: Pesticide soil sorption parameters: Theory, measurement, uses, limitations and reliability. Pest Manag Sci 58: 419445.
  • 5
    Walker A, Rodriguez-Cruz MS, Mitchell MJ. 2005. Influence of ageing of residues on the availability of herbicides for leaching. Environ Pollut 133: 4351.
  • 6
    Alexander M. 2000. Aging, bioavailability, and overestimation of risk from environmental pollutants. Env Sci Technol 34: 42594265.
  • 7
    Mordaunt CJ, Gevao B, Jones KC, Semple KT. 2005. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: Observations on compound differences, measurement, and regulatory issues. Environ Pollut 133: 2534.
  • 8
    Gevao B, Semple KT, Jones KC. 2000. Bound pesticide residues in soils: A review. Environ Pollut 108: 314.
  • 9
    Barraclough D, Kearney T, Croxford A. 2005. Bound residues: Environmental solution or future problem? Environ Pollut 133: 8590.
  • 10
    Pignatello JJ, Xing B. 1996. Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environ Sci Technol 30: 111.
  • 11
    Semple KT, Jones KC, Craven A. 2005. Introductory remarks to the Special Issue. Environ Pollut 133: 12.
  • 12
    Pätzold S, Brümmer GW. 2003. Influence of microbial activity and soil moisture on herbicide immobilization in soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 166: 336344.
  • 13
    Kah M, Brown CD. 2007. Changes in pesticide adsorption with time at high soil to solution ratios. Chemosphere 68: 13351343.
  • 14
    Mamy L, Barriuso E. 2007. Desorption and time-dependent sorption of herbicides in soils. Eur J Soil Sci 58: 174187.
  • 15
    Patzold S, Mertens FM, Bornemann L, Koleczek B, Franke J, Feilhauer H, Welp G. 2008. Soil heterogeneity at field scale: A challenge for precision crop protection. Precision Agric 9: 367390.
  • 16
    Organization for Economic Cooperation. 2002. Guideline for testing of chemicals 307. Aerobic and anaerobic transformation in soil. Paris, France.
  • 17
    Cheng HH, Führ F. 1976. Extraction of methabenzthiazuron from the soil. J Agric And Food Chem 24: 421424.
  • 18
    Burauel P, Führ F. 2000. Formation and long-term fate of non-extractable residues in outdoor lysimeter studies. Environ Pollut 108: 4552.
  • 19
    Papiernik SK, Koskinen WC, Cox L, Rice PJ, Clay SA, Werdin-Pfisterer NR, Norberg KA. 2006. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid and its metabolites in soil and vadose zone materials. J Agric Food Chem 54: 81638170.
  • 20
    Oi M. 1999. Time-dependent sorption of imidacloprid in two different soils. J Agric Food Chem 47: 327332.
  • 21
    Schmidt CK, Brauch HJ. 2008. N,N-dimethylsulfamide as precursor for n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation upon ozonation and its fate during drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Technol 42: 63406346.
  • 22
    Printz H, Burauel P, Führ F. 1995. Effect of organic amendment on degradation and formation of bound residues of methabenzthiazuron in soil under constant climatic conditions. J Environ Sci Heal B 30: 435456.
  • 23
    International Union of Soil Sciences. 2006. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. World Soil Resources Report 103. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  • 24
    Mertens FM, Pätzold S, Welp G. 2008. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and its mapping with apparent electrical conductivity. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171: 146154.
  • 25
    Bramley Y. 2007. Verification of the kinetic modeling software KinGUI 1.1. Bayer CropScience, Kansas City, MO, USA.
  • 26
    Forum for the Coordination of Pesticide Fate Models and Their Use (FOCUS). 2006. Guidance document on estimating persistence and degradation kinetics from environmental fate studies on pesticides in EU registration. Report of the FOCUS Work Group on degradation kinetics, Sanco/10058/2005 Ver 2.0. Brussels, Belgium.
  • 27
    Hamaker JW, Thompson JM. 1972. Adsorption. In Hamaker JW, Goring CAI, eds, Organic Chemicals in the Soil Environment, Vol 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, pp 49144.
  • 28
    Gottesbüren B, Pestemer W, Beulke S. 1994. Untersuchungen zur Charakterisierung und zu Auswirkungen der zeitlichen Veränderung der Sorption von Herbiziden im Boden. Z Pflanzenkrankh Pflanzenschutz 14: 661670.
  • 29
    Chen D, Rolston DE, Yamaguchi T. 2000. Calculating partition coefficients of organic vapors in unsaturated soil and clays. Soil Sci 165: 217225.
  • 30
    Cox L, Koskinen WC, Yen PY. 1998. Changes in sorption of imidacloprid with incubation time. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62: 342347.
  • 31
    Pätzold S, Brümmer W. 1997. Fate, sorption, and leaching of the herbicide diuron after annual application in an orchard soil (Orthic Luvisol). Z Pflanzenernahr Bodenkd 160: 165170.
  • 32
    Führ F, Mittelstaedt W. 1980. Plant experiments on the bioavailability of unextracted [carbonyl-14C]MBT residues from soil. J Agric Food Chem 28: 122125.
  • 33
    Azam F, Führ F, Mittelstaedt W. 1988. Fate of [carbonyl-14C]methabenzthiazuron in an arid region soil — Effect of organic amendment, soil disturbance and fumigation. Plant Soil 107: 149158.
  • 34
    Witte EG, Philipp H, Vereecken H. 2002. Study of enzyme-catalysed and noncatalysed interactions between soil humic acid and 13C-labelled 2-aminobenzothiazole using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Org Geochem 33: 17271735.
  • 35
    Koglin E, Meier RJ, Vereecken H. 2005. Molecular characterisation of the bonding of herbicide metabolites to humic acid. J Mol Struct 759: 133136.
  • 36
    Liu ZH, Dai YJ, Huang GD, Gu YY, Ni J, Wei H, Yuan S. 2011. Soil microbial degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and imidaclothiz and its effect on the persistence of bioefficacy against horsebean aphid Aphis craccivora Koch after soil application. Pest Manag Sci 67: 12451252.
  • 37
    Dean JR, Ma RL. 2007. Approaches to assess the oral bioaccessibility of persistent organic pollutants: A critical review. Chemosphere 68: 13991407.
  • 38
    Luthy RG, Aiken GR, Brusseau ML, Cunningham SD, Gschwend PM, Pignatello JJ, Reinhard M, Traina SJ, Weber WJ, Westall JC. 1997. Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants by geosorbents. Environ Sci Technol 31: 33413347.
  • 39
    Anderson JPE, Domsch KH. 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 10: 215221.